Encyclopedias and dictionaries

Encyclopedias and dictionaries are referenced in a similar format to books.

Article in an encyclopedia

Reference list – print example

Connor, M . (2001). Health behaviors. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (Vol. 10, pp. 6506–6512). Elsevier Science.

No author

Capitalism. (2000). In A. G. Johnson (Ed.), The Blackwell dictionary of sociology (pp. 31–33). Blackwell.

  • Begin reference with the title of the article

Reference list – electronic examples

Blatt, G. (n.d.). Autism. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Group. Retrieved October 28, 2019, from https://www.britannica.com/science/autism

Kirk, R. (2019). Zombies. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Spring 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2019/entries/zombies/

Royal, T. A. C. (2005). Story: Māori creation traditions. In Te Ara: The encyclopedia of New Zealand. Manatū Taonga–Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved August 5, 2020, from https://teara.govt.nz/en/maori-creation-traditions

  • Include the DOI, or if there is no DOI, a URL that will work for all readers
  • Include a retrieval date if entries are updated over time and not archived
  • For The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, click the “Author and Citation Info” link on the article webpage to get the URL and article details for the archived version. As articles are archived in this encyclopedia, a retrieval date is not required

No author

Autism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia BritannicaBritannica Group. Retrieved October 28, 2019, from https://www.britannica.com/science/autism

In-text citations

According to Connor (2001) ... OR Research indicates ... (Connor, 2001)

According to Royal (2005, p. 3) ... OR Creation stories ... (Royal, 2005, p. 3)

  • Articles in the Te Ara encyclopedia are typically paginated. If you use only a part of an article, you may choose to help your reader locate it by giving the page number in the in-text citation

Research indicates ... (“Autism,” n.d.)

  • If there is no author, cite in text the first few words of the title and the year. Put double quotation marks around the title and use title case capitalisation

Entry in a dictionary

Print example

Transnationalism. (2002). In C. Calhoun (Ed.), Dictionary of the social sciences. Oxford University Press.

Electronic example

Moorfield, J. C. (n.d.). Kaitiakitanga. In Māori dictionary: Te aka Māori-English, English-Māori dictionary. Retrieved October 5, 2020, from https://maoridictionary.co.nz/search?idiom=&phrase=&proverb=&loan=&histLoanWords=&keywords=kaitiakitanga

White, L. J. (2011). Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the crisis in US mortgage finance. In Palgrave Macmillan (Ed.), The new Palgrave dictionary of economics (Living ed., pp. 1–11). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95121-5_3002-1

  • Include the DOI or, if there is no DOI, a URL that will work for all readers.
  • As the online Māori Dictionary is continually updated, use ‘n.d.’ as the year of publication instead of website footer dates (such as 2003–2020) and include a retrieval date.
  • See also Dictionary Entry References on the APA website for how to reference changeable, nonarchived dictionaries and also how to indicate a specific definition in an in-text citation.

No author

Discrimination. (2014). In J. Scott (Ed.), A dictionary of sociology (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acref/9780199683581.001.0001

In-text citations

(“Transnationalism,” 2002)

Moorfield (n.d., Definition 1) OR (Moorfield, n.d., Definition 1)

White (2011) OR (White, 2011)

(“Discrimination,” 2014)

  • The Moorfield example shows how to indicate a specific dictionary definition. In your narrative, use italics for the first use of key terms or phrases when accompanied by a definition, for example:
    Kaitiakitanga has been defined as “guardianship, stewardship, trusteeship, trustee” (Moorfield, n.d., Definition 1). Accordingly, kaitiakitanga ...