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Referencing style

Personal communication

30 September 2023

A personal communication could be a private letter, memo, email, interview, or telephone conversation. It's only cited in text and not included in the reference list because the information can't be retrieved by others. Learn more.


Personal communications may be private letters, memos, emails, personal interviews or telephone conversations. Personal communications are only cited in text and are not included in the reference list, as the information is unable to be retrieved by others.


In-text examples

B. T. Smith (personal communication, September 21, 2020)

(B. T. Smith, personal communication, September 21, 2020)


See also
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