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Referencing style

Audiovisual material

30 September 2023

You can reference YouTube and Vimeo videos, TED Talks, films, streaming service viewings, and radio or television episodes in APA style. Learn how to reference audiovisual material.


Uploader, U. U. (Year, Month Date). Title of video: Subtitle of video [Video]. Publisher. https://

Ministry of Education. (2018, April 19). Things to consider when teaching te reo Māori [Video]. Vimeo.

swapsoton. (2007, October 29). Peter Alcock—What is social policy? [Video]. YouTube.


  • The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author to aid retrieval, even if they did not create the work. Note the contribution of others who appear in the video in the text narrative if desired, for example: Alcock discussed social policy ... (swapsoton, 2007).
  • Include year, month and day uploaded in the reference list entry. Vimeo shows the posting date if you click the ‘More’ button under the title.
  • In-text citations:
    (Ministry of Education, 2018) OR Ministry of Education (2018) ...
    (swapsoton, 2007) OR ... swapsoton (2007) ...
  • To quote directly from a video, provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation in place of a page number, for example (swapsoton, 2007, 2:15).
  • See also YouTube Video References on the APA Style website.

Ebi, K. (2019, April). How climate change could make our food less nutritious [Video]. TED Conferences.

TED. (2019, October 10). How climate change could make our food less nutritious: Kristie Ebi [Video]. YouTube.


  • In-text citations: (Ebi, 2019; TED, 2019) OR Ebi (2019) and TED (2019) ...
  • When the TED Talk is from TED’s website (as with the Ebi example), use the name of the speaker as author. When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here, TED) as the author to aid retrieval
  • When the speaker is not listed as the author, integrate their name into the text narrative if desired, e.g. Ebi discussed how high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide lower plants’ nutritional value (TED, 2019).
  • To quote directly from a TED Talk video, provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation in place of a page number, e.g. (Ebi, 2019, 5:17).
  • See also TED Talk References on the APA website

Director, D. D. (Director). (Year). Title of film: Subtitle of film [Film]. Publisher.

Batalibasi, A. (Producer), & Pa’apa’a, L. (Producer). (2011). Pacific stories: A film project exploring Pacific Islander identities [Film; DVD]. Pacific Stories.

Cullen, P. (Director). (2004). The stolen eye [Film]. Admire Productions.

Gibson, L. (Writer & Director). (2011). Fehuluni. In A. Batalibasi & L. Pa’apa’a (Producers), Pacific stories: A film project exploring Pacific Islander identities [Film]. Pacific Stories.


  • For films, usually the director should be credited as the author. If the director is unknown, however, someone in a similar role can be credited instead to aid readers in retrieving the work (e.g., the Batalibasi & Pa’apa’a example above). The description of role in this case matches what is on the work and is flexible.
  • It is unnecessary to specify how you watched a film (in a theatre, on DVD, streaming online).
    • All the same, when you need to specify the version used (e.g., when the film’s DVD release includes a commentary or special feature that you used), the format or other descriptive information may be included. Put this information within the [ ] after the word “Film” and a semicolon, for example [Film; DVD] or [Film; educational DVD] and so on. Adjust the wording as needed.

Director, D. D. (Director). (Year). Title of film: Subtitle of film [Film]. Publisher. URL or nothing

O’Leary, C. (Producer/Director). (1998). A class act: Mervyn Thomspon, playwright [Film]. Banshee Productions.

Pryor, H. (Director). (2007). The Lacandon Maya [Film]. Filmakers Library.

Su, C. F., & Picker, M. (Directors). (2001). Mickey Mouse monopoly: Disney, childhood & corporate power [Film]. Media Education Foundation.


  • The URL of a film viewed on a streaming service such as Alexander Street or Kanopy will not resolve for all readers, so the URL is omitted.

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Year). Title of episode: Subtitle of episode [TV series episode OR Radio series episode]. In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV or radio series: Subtitle of TV or radio series. Production Company. https://


MacAskill, W. (2015, September 29). Effective altruism, doing good better [Radio series episode]. In K. Ryan (Host), Nine to noon. Radio New Zealand.,-doing-good-better

Turner, H., & Roberts, A. (2014, May 12). Teacher racism [TV series episode]. In M. Forbes (Host), Native affairs. Māori Television.


  • The writer or writers and director are credited for a TV series episode or webisode. Other role descriptions, such as “Executive Director”, may also be used if used on the source instead.
  • For interviews housed in digital or physical archives, credit the interviewee as the author.
  • In-text citations:
    (MacAskill, 2015) OR MacAskill (2015) ...
    (Turner & Roberts, 2014) OR Turner and Roberts (2014) ...
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