Webpages on websites

Works not referenced as webpages

General format

Important elements of webpage references

  • Author (Lastname, Initials OR Organisation)
  • Date of publication if available; use the date of last update instead when present
    • Do not use copyright dates from website footers as they may not apply to specific content
    • Do not use dates of last review as reviewed content may not have changed
  • Title (in italics, sentence case capitalisation)
  • Website name (omit if it is the same as the author)
  • URL

Wilkins, A. (2018, June 28). NZ Govt yet to address single-use plastic bags, despite Australia’s progress. Newshub. https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2018/06/nz-govt-yet-to-address-single-use-plastic-bags-despite-australia-s-progress.html

In-text citation: According to Wilkins (2018) ... OR Plastic bags are ... (Wilkins, 2018).

Author and website name are the same

Ministry of Health. (2020, October 7). COVID-19: Use of face masks in the community. https://www.health.govt.nz/our-work/diseases-and-conditions/covid-19-novel-coronavirus/covid-19-health-advice-general-public/covid-19-use-masks-community

In-text citation: Ministry of Health (2020) ... OR (Ministry of Health, 2020).

Author and website name are the same; changeable nonarchived webpage

Stats NZ. (n.d.). Population. Retrieved November 6, 2019, from https://www.stats.govt.nz/topics/population

In-text citation: Stats NZ (n.d.) ... OR (Stats NZ, n.d.).


  • Use the webpage on a website format for articles from news websites such as Newshub, as they are not associated with daily or weekly newspapers. Use the newspaper articles format for articles from newspaper websites such as The Press.
  • Include a retrieval date if the material is likely to change over time and the page itself is not archived (for example, nonarchived social media pages)

PDF documents on websites

Reference list

Cultural Learning Alliance. (2018). The arts, health & wellbeing: Why the arts make us happier and healthier (Briefing Paper No. 3). https://culturallearningalliance.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Arts-Health-and-Wellbeing-Briefing.pdf

Ministry of Health. (2015). Suicide facts: Deaths and intentional self-harm hospitalisations, 2012. https://www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/publications/suicide-facts-2012-may15-v2.pdf

In-text citations

Cultural Learning Alliance (2018) ... OR ... (Cultural Learning Alliance, 2018).

Ministry of Health (2015) ... OR ... (Ministry of Health, 2015).

  • PDF documents are typically ebooks or online reports.
  • If there is a date, use the year only in the reference.
  • Omit the publisher name if it is identical to the author.

Corporate authors

Reference list

Science Learning Hub–Pokapū Akoranga Pūtaiao. (2012, October 10). Carbonate chemistry. https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/469-carbonate-chemistry

World Health Organization. (2018, February 15). Asbestos: Elimination of asbestos-related diseases. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/asbestos-elimination-of-asbestos-related-diseases

In-text citations

Science Learning Hub–Pokapū Akoranga Pūtaiao (2012) ... OR (Science Learning Hub–Pokapū Akoranga Pūtaiao, 2012)

World Health Organization (2018) ... OR (World Health Organization, 2018)

  • See Author Variations for more about corporate authors in references and in-text citations

No Author Listed

The author of a webpage may not be given in a normal byline but it can be determined from context

  • For a webpage from an organisational or government website, the organisation or government agency itself is the author, unless otherwise specified
  • The author may also be located on an “about us” or acknowledgements page

No Date

Reference list

Ministry of Education. (n.d.-a). Developing an inclusive classroom culture. TKI. https://www.inclusive.tki.org.nz/guides/developing-an-inclusive-classroom-culture/

Ministry of Education. (n.d.-b). Digital technologies and the national curriculum. TKI. https://elearning.tki.org.nz/Teaching/Curriculum-areas/Digital-Technologies-in-the-curriculum

Ministry of Education. (n.d.-c). A new model for delivering learning support. https://www.education.govt.nz/our-work/changes-in-education/strengthening-learning-support/a-new-model-for-delivering-learning-support/

Ministry of Education. (n.d.-d). Strengthening learning support. https://www.education.govt.nz/our-work/changes-in-education/strengthening-learning-support/

United Nations. (n.d.). Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/climate-change/

In-text citations

Ministry of Education (n.d.-b) ... OR (Ministry of Education, n.d.-b)

Ministry of Education (n.d.-a, n.d.-c) ... OR (Ministry of Education, n.d.-a, n.d.-c)

United Nations (n.d.) ... OR (United Nations, n.d.)

Ensure that the date applies to the content you are referencing

  • Do not use copyright dates from website footers as they may not apply to specific content
  • Do not use dates of last review as reviewed content may not have changed
  • If there is no date of publication or date of last update, treat the work as having no date and write n.d.
    • To distinguish references with the same author and no date, put a hyphen and letter after no date: n.d.-a, n.d.-b and so on
    • The order of n.d.-a, n.d.-b and so on is title alphabetical order, ignoring any initial A, An or The

Blog Posts

Author, A. (Date). Title of Blog post. Blog Site Name. https://xxxxxx

Grohol, J. M. (2018, July 8). While you sleep, your brain keeps working. Psych Central. https://psychcentral.com/blog/while-you-sleep-your-brain-keeps-working/

In-text citation: Grohol (2018) ... OR (Grohol, 2018)

Press Releases

Reference list

Little, A. (2019, December 12). New direction for criminal justice reform [Press release]. Beehive.govt.nz. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/new-direction-criminal-justice-reform

World Health Organization. (2013, November 11). Global health workforce shortage to reach 12.9 million in coming decade [Press release]. https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2013/health-workforce-shortage/en/

In-text citations

Little (2019) ... OR (Little, 2019)

World Health Organization (2013) ... OR (World Health Organization, 2013)