APA style 7th edition
The American Psychological Association (APA) style is an in-text referencing style and includes
- A reference list at the end of the document for all in-text citations
- In-text citations to identify briefly the sources you have quoted or paraphrased.
New to APA?
- Try the Introduction to APA Referencing (UC Library LEARN module).
- Download the APA 7th Quick Guide (PDF 800KB) | Scaffolded Reference Elements Worksheet (PDF 270KB).
- Books and edited book chapters
- Journal articles
- Audiovisual material (DVD, video, radio, television episode, YouTube)
- ChatGPT and other AI models and software (APA Style Blog)
- Conference papers
- Encyclopedias and dictionaries
- Informally published works (online research repositories, eprints)
- Lecture notes, Echo360 and PowerPoint slides on AKO | LEARN
- Legal resources (cases, Acts, Bills, regulations, Hansard, AJHR, Laws of New Zealand, treaties, Waitangi Tribunal)
- Music (recordings, scores)
- Newspaper articles
- Reports and government publications
- Social media (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter)
- Webpages on websites
Basic rules and in-text elements
- Reference list
- In-text citations (including quotations)
- Author variations
- Abbreviations Guide (PDF 162 KB)
- Avoiding Plagiarism Guide (PDF 141 KB)
- Citing a source within a source (secondary sources)
- DOIs and URLs (APA Style website)
- Numbers and Statistics Guide (PDF 120 KB)
- Paper Format (APA Style website)
- Personal communication
- Tables and figures (including charts, graphs, images and pictures)
APA style is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). For more resources see Other APA style resources and Quick APA citation tools.
The 7th edition of APA was published in October 2019 and hardly any departments or lecturers at UC are still using the APA 6th edition.