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CSE style

07 September 2023

The Council of Science Editors (CSE) style is the style used by the Royal Society of New Zealand for the journals they publish. Learn how to use the CSE style.


CSE style

The following is an abridged version of the Taylor & Francis (publisher) CSE Style Guide. For a detailed description of the style see the official published manual held at EPS Library: Scientific Style and Format.

The Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style is the style used by the Royal Society of New Zealand for the journals they publish.

In-text citations

In-text examples

The most recent report (Slack 2002) on the use of…

Slack (2002) notes in the report that…


Multiple references

When several in-text references occur at the same point, give them in chronological order from earliest to latest, separated by semicolons. Sequence by month those published in the same year or, if this information is not available, alphabetically by author names.

(Dawson and Briggs 1974; Dawson and Jones 1974; Smith AL 1978; Smith GT 1978; Smith et al. 1978; Tyndall et al. 1978; Zymgomoski 1978; Brown 1980)


Page numbers

(Smith 2016, p. 6)

Page number ranges are also preceded by "p." and a space, and linked with an en dash.

(Smith 2016, p. 56–63)


With a quotation

This is the text, and Smith (2016) says "quoted text" (p. 1), which supports my argument.

This is the text, and this is supported by "quoted text" (Smith 2016, p. 1).

This is a displayed quotation. (Smith 2016, p. 1)


One author

Smith (2016) or (Smith 2016)

Distinguish multiple works by the same author published in different years by placing the years after the author name in chronological sequence, separated by a comma and a space.

(Smith 1970, 1975)

If the authors of two works published in the same year have the same surname, include their initials in the in-text reference and separate the two in-text references by a semicolon and a space.

(Dawson J 1986; Dawson M 1986)


Two authors

Smith and Jones (2016) or (Smith and Jones 2016)

If both authors have the same surname, include their initials in the in-text reference.

(Smith TL and Smith UV 1990)


Three or more authors

Give only the first author’s name followed by et al. (not in italics) and the year of publication.

Smith et al. (2016) or (Smith et al. 2016)


Multiple works by the same author (or group of authors) in the same year

Put a, b, c, etc. after the year. The sequence is preferably determined by the sequence of publication, but if this cannot be determined, order alphabetically by article title.

(Chen 2011a, 2011b; Chen et al. 2016a, 2016b)


Organisation as author

If the organization’s name occurs several times in the document, a shortened form may be created for the in-text reference by using an abbreviation. For clarity, the abbreviation appears as the initial element in the end reference, within square brackets.

In the text: (IOM 1975)

In the reference list: [IOM] Institute of Medicine (US). 1975.

Organizations’ full names are acceptable in in-text references if they occur only infrequently.

(Institute of Medicine 1975)


No identifiable author

Begin the in-text reference with the first word or first few words of the title followed by an ellipsis

(Handbook… 2000)


Secondary source

When it is not possible to see an original document, cite the source of your information on it; do not cite the original assuming that the secondary source is correct.


Personal communication

References to personal communications are cited only in the text.

… and most of these proved to be fatal (2003 letter from RS Grant to me; unreferenced, see "Notes") …


Unknown date

For in-text references to publications with no date, place the words “date unknown” within square brackets.

(Author [date unknown]).

In-text references in a table are usually most appropriately put in footnotes to the table. If in-text references must appear within the field of a table, use a separate column or row for them and supply an appropriate heading to identify them.

Reference list


At the end of a document, list the references to sources that have been cited within the text, including those found in tables and figures, under the heading References.

Place references in alphabetical order by author. Alphabetical sequence is determined by the first author's surname (family name) and then, if necessary, by letter-by-letter alphabetical sequencing determined by the initials of the first author and the beginning letters of any subsequent authors' surnames.

Order references by the same author(s) by year in ascending order.

If no authors are present, order items by title, following these principles: ignore 'a', 'an' and 'the' at the beginning of a title when alphabetizing.


Form of author name

Begin with the surname (family name), followed by the initials without punctuation and without spaces, hyphens or full points between them, e.g. Author AA. Separate successive author names from each other by a comma and a space.

Author AA, Author BB.


Two authors

Mazan MR, Hoffman AM. 2001. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiologic responses to exercise in standardbreds. Am J Vet Res. 62(11):1812–1817.


Three to ten authors

List all authors’ names.

Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. 2003. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 9(1):49–58.

Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA. 2005. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev. 85:679–715.


More than ten authors

List the first ten, followed by a comma and et al.

Pii C, Caraglia M, Cianciulli M, Fabbrocini A, Libroia A, Matano E, Contegiacomo A, Del Prete S, Abbruese A, Martignetti A, et al. 2002. Low-dose recombinant IL-2 induces psychological changes: monitoring by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Anticancer Res. 22(2A):727–732.


Organisation as author

[ACS] American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Outcomes, Working Group. 2001. Practice management guidelines for emergency department thoracotomy. J Am Coll Surg. 193(3):303– 309.


No author

Changes made to policy, standards for disease-specific care certification. 2003. Jt Comm Perspect. 23(1):9–10.


Date of publication

The year of publication is required for all references. The month and day of the month (or the season) must be included only when citing a journal that has no volume or issue number, when citing a newspaper or a patent, and for dates of update/revision and citation of electronic publications.

Months are abbreviated using the first three letters and placed after the year, e.g. 2016 Feb. A range of months is linked with an en dash, e.g. Aug–Oct.

If no date of publication can be found, but can be reasonably inferred from within the publication, enclose it in square brackets, e.g. [2016]:

If no date of publication can be found or inferred, use [date unknown].

Article titles

Capitalize only the first word of the title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms and initialisms. End the title with a full stop unless another closing punctuation mark is already present.


Journal titles

Journal titles are capitalized and abbreviated according to ISO 4. Consult one of the links on this guide to find the abbreviation for a particular journal.


Volume and issue numbers

The issue number can be omitted if the journal is paginated consecutively through the volume, but it is not incorrect to include it. Enclose issue information in parentheses. Link multiple volume or issue numbers with an en dash.


Page numbers

List the first and last pages of the article, linked with an en dash.


URLs and DOIs

Should be used if available for online only sources.

Author B. Year. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. [accessed Date];[page numbers]. [URL or DOI].


Basic format (with one author)

‘Notes’ in the example below is not required but can be used for any additional information that enhances the reference such as the language of the item if not English.

Author AA. Year. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Volume(issue):pages. Notes.

Fauci AS. 2002. Smallpox vaccination policy – the need for dialogue. N Engl J Med. 346(17):1319–1320.


No volume or issue number

Sampat P. 2000 Jan–Feb. Groundwater shock: the polluting of the world’s major freshwater stores. World Watch. 10–22.

Danoek K. 1982. Skiing in and through the history of medicine. Nord Medicinhist Arsb. 86–100.

Place of publication

Always list the city, and for the sake of consistency always include the two-letter state or province abbreviation for US and Canadian cities (enclosed in parentheses). Include the country name for other countries only where this is necessary to avoid ambiguity.

Cambridge (MA): Cambridge (UK):

If more than one place of publication is found, use the first one listed (or the one set in the most prominent font).

If no place of publication can be found but can be reasonably inferred, enclose it in square brackets, e.g. [Chicago (IL)]:

If no place of publication can be found or inferred, use [place unknown]:



Abbreviate well-known publisher names, e.g. ‘John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.’ may become simply ‘Wiley’. If more than one publisher is found, use the first one listed (or the one set in the most prominent font). If no publisher can be determined, use [publisher unknown]


Page numbers

List the first and last pages of a chapter or part being cited, linked with an en dash and preceded by "p." and a space, e.g. "p. 56–63". Page number ranges are not elided.

It is not necessary to list the extent (total pagination) of books, conference proceedings and other monographs.


Basic format (with one author)

Author AA. 2016. This is a book title: and subtitle. Place: Publisher.

Jenkins PF. 2005. Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide. New York (NY): Oxford University Press.


Unknown place of publication

Mueller FO, Schindler RD. 1986. Annual survey of football injury research 1931– 1985. [place unknown]: American Football Coaches Association.



Schott J, Priest J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives.


Chapter in authored book

Author AA. Year. Book title: and subtitle. Place: Publisher. Chapter number, Chapter title; p. pages.

Shakelford RT. 1978. Surgery of the alimentary tract. Philadelphia (PA): W.B. Saunders. Chapter 2, Esophagoscopy; p. 29–40.


Chapter in edited book

Author AA. Year. Chapter title. In: Editor EE, editor(s). Book title. Place: Publisher; p. pages.

Goldhagan JL. 2000. Child health in the developing world. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, editors. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 16th ed. Philadelphia (PA): W.B. Saunders Company; p. 11–14.



Kruger L, editor. 1996. Pain and touch. San Diego (CA): Academic Press.

Leeper FJ, Vederas JC, editors. 2000. Biosynthesis: polyketides and vitamins. New York (NY): Springer.


Online (e-book)

Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM. 2000. Introduction to genetic analysis. 7th ed. New York (NY): W. H. Freeman & Co.; [accessed 2005 May 31].


Antonioli GE, editor. 1997. Pacemaker leads 1997. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Pacemaker Leads; Sep 11–13; Ferrara, Italy. Bologna: Monducci Editore.

Callaos N, Margenstern M, Zhang J, Castillo O, Doberkat EE, editors. 2003. SCI 2003. Proceedings of the 7th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics; Jul 27–30; Orlando, FL. Orlando (FL): International Institute of Informatics and Systematics.


Paper in proceedings

Lee DJ, Bates D, Dromey C, Xu X, Antani S. 2003. An imaging system correlating lip shapes with tongue contact patterns for speech pathology research. In: Krol M, Mitra S, Lee DJ, editors. CMBS 2003. Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems; Jun 26–27; New York. Los Alamitos (CA): IEEE Computer Society. p. 307–313.



Antani S, Long LR, Thoma GR, Lee DJ. 2003. Anatomical shape representation in spine x-ray images. Paper presented at: VIIP 2003. Proceedings of the 3rd IASTED International Conference on Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing; Sep 8–10; Benalmadena, Spain.



Charles L, Gordner R. 2005. Analysis of MedlinePlus en Español customer service requests. Poster session presented at: Futuro magnifico! Celebrating our diversity. MLA ’05: Medical Library Association Annual Meeting; May 14–19; San Antonio, TX.


Ritzmann RE. 1974. The snapping mechanism of Alpheid shrimp [dissertation]. Charlottesville (VA): University of Virginia.



Oviedo S. 1995. Adolescent pregnancy: voices heard in the everyday lives of pregnant teenagers [master’s thesis]. Denton (TX): University of North Texas.

Cartographer AA, cartographer. Date. Title of map [map type]. Place of publication: Publisher. Physical description. Notes.

Doyon R, Donovan T, cartographers. 1992. AIDS in Massachusetts, 1985–1991 [demographic map]. Amherst (MA): University of Massachusetts, Department of Geology & Geography.

Newspaper/magazine titles

Titles of newspapers and magazines are not abbreviated (except that a leading "The" may be omitted). If the title does not indicate the place of publication, the location may be added within or after the title as appropriate. Edition designators are also treated as part of the title.



Full dates of publication are required, including the month and day of the month.


Print edition

Author A. Year Month Day. Article title. Publication Title (Edition if available/ Location). Sect. [section]:start page (col. [column]).

Weiss R. 2003 Apr 11. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals. Washington Post (Home Ed.). Sect. A:12 (col. 1).



Author A. Year Month Day. Article title. Publication Title. [accessed Year Month Day];Sect. [section]:[page or screen extent]. URL.

Grady D. 2008 Apr 18. Jump in doctor visits and deaths in flu season. New York Times. [accessed 2008 Dec 19];Research:[about 4 screens]. seasonst=cse.


No author named

Woman in L.A. tests positive for plague. 2006 Apr 20. Richmond Times-Dispatch. Sect. A:7 (col. 6).


Website name. Year. Place: Publisher; [accessed Date]. URL. Notes.

AMA: helping doctors help patients. 1995–2007. Chicago (IL): American Medical Association; [accessed 2007 Feb 22].

The place of publication and the publisher can be included if known; this is a requirement of the CSE Manual.


Web page

Hollenberg NK. 2005. Hypertension: mechanisms and therapy. [London (UK)]: Current Medicine Group Ltd; [accessed 2005 May 31]. http://www.norvasc- Registration required.

Lawrence RA. 1997. A review of the medical benefits and contraindications to breastfeeding in the United States. Arlington (VA): National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health (US); [accessed 2005 Jun 28].

The place of publication and the publisher can be included if known; this is a requirement of the CSE Manual.

Place references to personal communications such as letters and conversations within the running text, not as formal end references. Include the nature and source of the cited information, using terms to indicate that no corresponding citation is in the reference list. Place the source information in parentheses.

… and most of these proved to be fatal (2003 letter from RS Grant to me; unreferenced, see "Notes") …

Format as for a book reference with the institution or organisation in place of the publisher. Include the report series and number if available.

Author A, Author B. Year. Report title. Place: Institution. Report number. Notes.

Feller BA. 1981. Health characteristics of persons with chronic activity limitation, United States, 1979. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US). Report No.: VHS-SER-10/137. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB88- 228622.

Moray NP, Huey BM. 1988. Human factors research and nuclear safety. Washington (DC): National Academy Press. Contract No.: NRC-04-86-301.

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