Creating a reference list

  • On a new page after the text, provide a list of references for all sources quoted or paraphrased in the text.
  • Give the list a centred heading References in bold.
  • Indent the second and subsequent lines of the reference by 0.5 in. (1.27 cm.).
  • Use the same line spacing as in the rest of your document.
    • The apparent extra line spacing between references below is an unfortunate artefact of the setup of this website.
  • Arrange alphabetically by the surname of the first author.
  • If there are two works by the same author, arrange by year of publication. No date “n.d.” references by the same author precede those with years and “in press” follow references with years.
  • If the item has no author, order in the reference list alphabetically, starting at the first significant word in the title (ignore an initial article “A” “An” or “The”).

Sample APA reference list


Black, J. (2003). A dictionary of economics (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.

Blendon, R. J., Benson, J. M., Brodie, M., Morin, R., Altman, D. E., Gitterman, D., Brossard, & James, M. (1999). Bridging the gap between the public’s and the economists’ views of the economy. In R. F. Garnett Jr. (Ed.), What do economists know? New economics of knowledge (pp. 86–100). Routledge.

Caldas, J. C., Costa, A. N., & Burns, T. R. (2007). Rethinking economics: The potential contribution of the classics. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 31(1), 25–41.

Camic, C., Gorski, P. S., & Trubek, D. M. (2005). Max Weber's economy and society: A critical companion. Stanford University Press.

Christou, C., & Haliassos, M. (2006). How do students finance human capital accumulation? The choice between borrowing and work. Journal of Policy Modeling, 28(1), 39–51.

Datamonitor. (2006). McCain case study: Strategies for boosting sales of frozen food, CSCM0099.

EconData Pty Limited. (2010). Food price index. New Zealand Time Series.

Garnett, R. F., Jr. (Ed.). (1999). What do economists know? New economics of knowledge. Routledge.

Harris, D. (2019, October 29). $80m Govt cash could fund Christchurch’s green spine, revamp roads. The Press.

Levitt, S. D., & Dubner, S. J. (2005). Freakonomics: A rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything. William Morrow.

Ministry of Economic Development. (n.d.). A promotion of enterprise culture: Theories and practices.

Nielsen Company. (2011). Sales of vitamins/minerals & herbal supplements in New Zealand, 11 September 2010–11 September 2011.

Research and markets: Trends and behaviors in eating out. (2007, July 23). Marketing Weekly News.

Restaurant Brands New Zealand Limited. (2010). Annual report.

Statistics New Zealand. (2005). New Zealand in the OECD.

Statistics New Zealand. (2006). Earnings by ethnicity, sex, and age groups

Te Tari Taiwhenua–Department of Internal Affairs. (n.d.). Pūrongo ā tau—Annual report 2019.$file/Annual-Report-2019-Final-Audit-approved.pdf

Te Tiriti o Waitangi, 1840.

TED. (2019, October 10). How climate change could make our food less nutritious: Kristie Ebi [Video]. YouTube.

Warwick University Institute for Fiscal Studies. (n.d.). Virtual economy.

Zimbalist, A. (2011). Economic impact of the Olympic Games. In Palgrave Macmillan (Ed.), The New Palgrave dictionary of economics (Living ed.). Palgrave Macmillan.