Creating a reference list
- On a new page after the text, provide a list of references for all sources quoted or paraphrased in the text.
- See Works Included in a Reference List on the APA Style website for a few types of works that are excluded.
- Give the list a centred heading References in bold.
- Indent the second and subsequent lines of the reference by 0.5 in. (1.27 cm.).
- In MS Word for Windows, place the cursor anywhere in the reference and press Ctrl+t.
- In MS Word for Mac, select the reference or references, right-click or ⌘+Ctrl+click and then under Indentation in the Special field select ‘Hanging’.
- Use the same line spacing as in the rest of your document.
- The apparent extra line spacing between references below is an unfortunate artefact of the setup of this website.
- Arrange alphabetically by the surname of the first author.
- If there are two works by the same author, arrange by year of publication. No date “n.d.” references by the same author precede those with years and “in press” follow references with years.
- If the item has no author, order in the reference list alphabetically, starting at the first significant word in the title (ignore an initial article “A” “An” or “The”).
- See also How to Alphabetize “a,” “an,” and “the” in APA Style References on the APA Style blog.
Sample APA reference list
Black, J. (2003). A dictionary of economics (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
Blendon, R. J., Benson, J. M., Brodie, M., Morin, R., Altman, D. E., Gitterman, D., Brossard, & James, M. (1999). Bridging the gap between the public’s and the economists’ views of the economy. In R. F. Garnett Jr. (Ed.), What do economists know? New economics of knowledge (pp. 86–100). Routledge.
Caldas, J. C., Costa, A. N., & Burns, T. R. (2007). Rethinking economics: The potential contribution of the classics. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 31(1), 25–41. https://doi.org/10.1093/cje/bel003
Camic, C., Gorski, P. S., & Trubek, D. M. (2005). Max Weber's economy and society: A critical companion. Stanford University Press.
Christou, C., & Haliassos, M. (2006). How do students finance human capital accumulation? The choice between borrowing and work. Journal of Policy Modeling, 28(1), 39–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpolmod.2005.07.006
Datamonitor. (2006). McCain case study: Strategies for boosting sales of frozen food, CSCM0099.
EconData. (2010). Food price index. New Zealand Time Series.
Garnett, R. F., Jr. (Ed.). (1999). What do economists know? New economics of knowledge. Routledge.
Harris, D. (2019, October 29). $80m Govt cash could fund Christchurch’s green spine, revamp roads. The Press. https://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/116985731/80m-govt-cash-could-fund-christchurchs-green-spine-revamp-roads
Levitt, S. D., & Dubner, S. J. (2005). Freakonomics: A rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything. William Morrow.
Ministry of Economic Development. (n.d.). A promotion of enterprise culture: Theories and practices. http://www.med.govt.nz
Nielsen. (2011). Sales of vitamins/minerals & herbal supplements in New Zealand, 11 September 2010–11 September 2011. https://answers.nielsen.com/
Research and markets: Trends and behaviors in eating out. (2007, July 23). Marketing Weekly News.
Restaurant Brands New Zealand. (2010). Annual report. https://companyresearch.nzx.com
Statistics New Zealand. (2005). New Zealand in the OECD. http://archive.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/government_finance/central_government/nz-in-the-oecd.aspx
Statistics New Zealand. (2006). Earnings by ethnicity, sex, and age groups http://www.stats.govt.nz/tools_and_services/tools/TableBuilder/income-tables.aspx
Te Tari Taiwhenua–Department of Internal Affairs. (n.d.). Pūrongo ā tau—Annual report 2019. https://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/Files/Annual-Report-2019/$file/Annual-Report-2019-Final-Audit-approved.pdf
Te Tiriti o Waitangi, 1840. https://waitangitribunal.govt.nz/treaty-of-waitangi/te-reo-maori-version/
TED. (2019, October 10). How climate change could make our food less nutritious: Kristie Ebi [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/wzjVT07bcYA
Warwick University Institute for Fiscal Studies. (n.d.). Virtual economy. http://www.bized.co.uk/virtual/economy
Zimbalist, A. (2011). Economic impact of the Olympic Games. In Palgrave Macmillan (Ed.), The New Palgrave dictionary of economics (Living ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230226203.3844