Creating a reference list

  • Provide a list on a separate page of all sources quoted or paraphrased in text
  • Include all references cited in text in the reference list
  • Indent the second and subsequent lines of the reference
  • Arrange alphabetically by the surname of the first author
  • If there are two works by the same author, arrange by year of publication (for how to arrange references with “in press” and “n.d.” see the APA Style blog post on alphabetizing)
  • If the item has no author, order in the reference list alphabetically by the first significant word in the title

Sample APA reference list

Black, J. (2003). A dictionary of economics (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Blendon, R. J., Benson, J. M., Brodie, M., Morin, R., Altman, D. E., Gitterman, D., ... James, M. (1999). Bridging the gap between the public’s and the economists’ views of the economy. In R. F. Garnett, Jr. (Ed.), What do economists know? New economics of knowledge (pp. 86–100). London, England: Routledge.

Caldas, J. C., Costa, A. N., & Burns, T. R. (2007). Rethinking economics: The potential contribution of the classics. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 31, 25–41.

Camic, C., Gorski, P. S., & Trubek, D. M. (2005). Max Weber's economy and society: A critical companion. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Christou, C., & Haliassos, M. (2006). How do students finance human capital accumulation? The choice between borrowing and work. Journal of Policy Modeling, 28, 39–51.

Datamonitor. (2006). McCain case study: Strategies for boosting sales of frozen food, CSCM0099. London, England: Author.

EconData Pty Limited. (2010). Food Price Index. Retrieved from New Zealand time series database.

Garnett, R. F., Jr. (Ed.). (1999). What do economists know? New economics of knowledge. London, England: Routledge.

Levitt, S. D., & Dubner, S. J. (2005). Freakonomics: A rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything. New York, NY: William Morrow.

Ministry of Economic Development. (n.d.). A promotion of enterprise culture: Theories and practices. Retrieved from

Nielsen Company. (2011). Vitamins/mineral & herbal supplements, 13 December 2009–11 December 2011 [Table]. Retrieved from ACNielsen Market Information Digest New Zealand.

Research and markets: Trends and behaviors in eating out. (2007, July 23). Marketing Weekly News. Retrieved from

Restaurant Brands New Zealand Limited. (2010). Annual report. Retrieved from

Statistics New Zealand. (2005). New Zealand in the OECD. Wellington, New Zealand: Author.

Statistics New Zealand. (2006.). Earnings by ethnicity, sex, and age groups [Data file]. Retrieved from

Warwick University Institute for Fiscal Studies. (n.d.). Virtual economy. Retrieved from

Weir, J. (2006, December 20). Cullen signals $1 B business tax cuts. The Press. Retrieved from

Zimbalist, A. (2011). Economic impact of the Olympic Games. In S. N. Durlauf & L. E. Blume (Eds.), The New Palgrave dictionary of economics.