Journal articles

Important elements

  • Author (Last name, initials)
  • Year of publication
    • Add the season for seasonal journals, the month for monthly journals, month and day for weekly journals
  • Title of the article (capitalise only the first word of title and of subtitle and any proper nouns)
  • Title of the journal in italics and with title case capitalisation
  • Volume number in italics, issue number in parentheses if available
    • In journals where the year serves as the volume number, include it as a volume number as well as the date
  • Page numbers of the article or article number if used by the journal
  • DOI or URL or nothing
    • Print journals: include the DOI if available, otherwise add nothing after the pages.
    • Electronic journals: include the DOI if available. If there is no DOI, include the URL but only if it is accessible for all readers (do not use a URL from LEARN or a library database). If there is no DOI or accessible URL, add nothing after the pages.

Journal article with a DOI

Kacmar, K. M., Andrews, M. C., Harris, K. J., & Tepper, B. J. (2013). Ethical leadership and subordinate outcomes: The mediating role of organizational politics and the moderating role of political skill. Journal of Business Ethics, 115(1), 33–44.

In-text citation: According to Kacmar et al. (2013) ... OR Research indicates ... (Kacmar et al., 2013)

Journal article with no DOI but with an accessible URL

Flisfeder, M. (2019). The apostle of reason: Hegel & the desire for emancipation in the 21st century. CT&T: Continental Thought & Theory, 2(4), 193–228.

In-text citation: Flisfeder (2019) ... OR ... (Flisfeder, 2019)

Journal article without a DOI or an accessible URL

Bourke, R., & Loveridge, J. (2014). Exposing the divide between assessment and the point of learning through student voice. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 49(2), 149–161.

In-text citation: Bourke and Loveridge (2014) ...OR ... (Bourke & Loveridge, 2014)

Journal article with an article number or eLocator

Huber, M., Knottnerus, J. A., Green, L., van der Horst, H., Jadad, A. R., Kromhout, D., Leonard, B., Lorig, K., Loureiro, M. I., van der Meer, J. W. M., Schnabel, P., Smith, R., van Weel, C., & Smid, H. (2011). How should we define health? BMJ, 343(7817), Article d4163.

In-text citation: Huber et al. (2011) ... OR ... (Huber et al., 2011)

Journal published weekly, monthly or seasonally

Fort, D. J., Propst, T. L., Stover, E. L., Strong, P. L., & Murray, F. J. (1998, Winter). Adverse reproductive and developmental effects in Xenopus from insufficient boron. Biological Trace Element Research, 66(1–3), 237–259.

Grace, R. (2017, June). From liquidating mixed plastics waste to capturing your washing machine’s microfibers. Plastics Engineering, 73(6), 20–24.

Organ, C., Nunn, C. L., Machanda, Z., & Wrangham, R. W. (2011, August 30). Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding during the evolution of Homo. PNAS, 108(35), 14555–14559.

Pandemic-proofing the planet. (2020, June 6). Economist, 435(9200), 64–67.

In-text citation:
Fort et al. (1998) ... OR ... (Fort et al., 1998)
Grace (2017) ... OR ... (Grace, 2017)
Organ et al. (2011) ... OR ... (Organ et al., 2011)
(“Pandemic-Proofing,” 2020)

  • For more about articles without authors, such as the “Pandemic-Proofing” example, see under Author Variations

Journal in which the year also serves as the volume number

Clune, M. (2019). Computational thinking in primary mathematics. Set, 2019(3), 43–50.

Matthews, N. (2011). Reflecting on Māori academic leadership. MAI Review, 2011(3), 1–4.

In-text citation:
Clune (2019) ... OR ... (Clune, 2019)
Matthews (2011) ... OR ... (Matthews, 2011)

  • Each year restarts issue numbering with issue 1.
  • The year occurs twice in the reference, in the date area and in the volume area.

Journal article missing volume, issue, page and/or article numbers

Brown, H. (2019–2020, Raumati–Summer). A treasure house for future generations. Te Karaka, (84), 28–31.

Laud, L., Hirsch, S., Patel, P., & Wagner, M. (2010). Maximize student achievement with formative assessment. ASCD Express, 6(1).

Nichol, T. (2020, January 2). Unswimmable Auckland. Metro, 52–57.

In-text citation:
Brown (2019–2020) ... OR ... (Brown, 2019–2020)
Laud et al. (2010) ... OR ... (Laud et al., 2010)
Nichol (2020) ... OR ... (Nichol, 2020)

  • Omit any missing part of the reference; other parts are not adjusted to accommodate the omission.

Journal article, advance online publication

Bourke, L., Marriott-Fellows, M., Jones, A., Humphreys, L., Davies, S. J., Zuffiano, A., & López-Pérez, B. (2019). Writing with imagination: The influence of hot and cold executive functions in children with autism characteristics and typically developing peers. Reading and Writing. Advance online publication.

  • Publishers label advance online publications in various ways, such as “online first publication” or “ahead of print”; this is standardised to “advance online publication” in the APA reference.

Article from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Mehrholz, J., Pohl, M., Platz, T., Kugler, J., & Elsner, B. (2018). Electromechanical and robot‐assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

  • Cochrane articles are formatted like journal articles. Do not italicise the database name if it appears in text.

See also