In-text citations

Summarised or paraphrased material

Research on authoritative child-rearing practices indicates ... (Cole & Cole, 2000).
According to Cole and Cole (2000), authoritarian parents ...

  • Use an in-text citation whenever you summarise, paraphrase or quote from another source. See Appropriate Level of Citation (APA Style website) for general guidance on citing sources
  • Use the author last name and the year of publication either inside parentheses or with the author name in the narrative of your essay and the year in parentheses
    ... (Taylor, 2019) OR Taylor (2019) ...
  • For two authors, the “and” is written as an ampersand (&) inside parentheses
  • For three or more authors, use the first author last name followed by “et al.”, for example (Simpson et al., 2020) or Simpson et al. (2020) for a narrative in-text citation
  • See Author Variations for more information and examples.

Citing a part of a source

Teenagers greatly influenced musical tastes in 1950s’ New Zealand (Bourke, 2010, Chapter 6).
Bourke (2010, pp. 3–4) highlights the importance of patriotism ...

  • In a long or complex text (a book for example), you may indicate the part of the work to help a reader locate the section
  • See Citing Specific Parts of a Source (APA Style website) and Book Chapters: What to Cite (APA Style blog) on ways to cite a specific part of a source, such as a page, chapter, table or video time stamp

More than one source in text

Many studies suggest ... (Davies, 1990; Humphries & Peters, 2005; Johnson, n.d., 2000, 2005, in press; Robertson, 2000a, 2000b; Weber, 2004).

  • List your citations alphabetically, separated by a semicolon
  • List works by the same author in order of date of publication, e.g. (Johnson, n.d., 2000, 2005, in press)
  • For works by the same author published in the same year, the references are identified by the use of a, b, etc. Give a to the reference whose title comes first alphabetically, b to the one whose title comes next, etc. (Robertson, 2002a, 2002b)
  • See Author Variations for more information and examples.

Quotations

Bell et al. (2001) define environmental psychology as “the study of the molar relationships between behaviour and experience and the built and natural environment” (p. 6).

Environmental psychology is “the study of the molar relationships between behaviour and experience and the built and natural environment” (Bell et al., 2001, p. 6).

If you use the exact words of authors, put the:

  • Quotation in quotation marks if there are 39 words or fewer
  • Include the author, year of publication and page numbers in text
  • Ellipses (...) are omitted from the beginning and end of a quotation unless the original source includes an ellipsis
  • A quotation of 40 or more words should be formatted as a freestanding, indented block of text without quotation marks
  • See more detailed explanations at Quotations on the APA Style website
  • See also Quotations from Research Participants on the APA Style website