References to audiovisual material include the authors or primary contributors, date, title, description and source.
DVD and Video
Uploader, U. U. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Publisher. https://xxxxxx
Director, D. D. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Description]. Publisher.
Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer). (Year OR Year span OR Year–present). Title of video [TV series]. Publisher.
Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Description]. Publisher.
- Put the primary contributors in the author position.
- The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability
- The director should be credited as the author of a film. If the director is unknown, however, someone in a similar role can be credited instead to aid readers in retrieving the work; in this case the role description matches what is on the work and is flexible
- The executive producer is credited for a TV series
- The writer or writers and director are credited for a TV series episode or webisode. Other role descriptions, such as “Executive Director”, may also be used
- Include the description in square brackets after the title (e.g. Film; DVD OR Video if retrieved online).
- If you sourced the video online, provide a URL accessible to all readers if available, otherwise omit this element (e.g. omit a URL for a library database)
YouTube and Vimeo videos
Ministry of Education. (2018, April 19). Things to consider when teaching te reo Māori [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/265674105
swapsoton. (2007, October 29). Peter Alcock—What is social policy? [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/Ccff_50dFP4
- Include year, month and day uploaded in the reference list entry. Vimeo shows the posting date if you click the ‘More’ button under the title
- In-text citations:
(Ministry of Education, 2018) OR Ministry of Education (2018) ...
(swapsoton, 2007) OR ... swapsoton (2007) ...
- The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author to aid retrieval, even if they did not create the work. Note the contribution of others who appear in the video in the text narrative if desired, e.g. Alcock discussed social policy ... (swapsoton, 2007).
- To quote directly from a video, provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation in place of a page number, e.g. (swapsoton, 2007, 2:15).
- See also YouTube Video References on the APA website
Ebi, K. (2019, April). How climate change could make our food less nutritious [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/kristie_ebi_how_climate_change_could_make_our_food_less_nutritious
TED. (2019, October 10). How climate change could make our food less nutritious: Kristie Ebi [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/wzjVT07bcYA
- In-text citations: (Ebi, 2019; TED, 2019) OR Ebi (2019) and TED (2019) ...
- When the TED Talk is from TED’s website (as with the Ebi example), use the name of the speaker as author. When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here, TED) as the author to aid retrieval
- When the speaker is not listed as the author, integrate their name into the text narrative if desired, e.g. Ebi discussed how high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide lower plants’ nutritional value (TED, 2019).
- To quote directly from a TED Talk video, provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation in place of a page number, e.g. (Ebi, 2019, 5:17).
- See also TED Talk References on the APA website
Films viewed on a streaming service
O’Leary, C. (Producer/Director). (1998). A class act: Mervyn Thomspon, playwright [Film]. Banshee Productions. https://www.nzonscreen.com/title/a-class-act-mervyn-thompson-his-life--work-1997/
Pryor, H. (Director). (2007). The Lacandon Maya [Film]. Filmakers Library.
Su, C. F., & Picker, M. (Directors). (2001). Mickey Mouse monopoly: Disney, childhood & corporate power [Film]. Media Education Foundation.
- The URL of a film viewed on a streaming service such as Alexander Street or Kanopy will not resolve for all readers, so the URL is omitted.
Batalibasi, A. (Producer), & Pa’apa’a, L. (Producer). (2011). Pacific stories: A film project exploring Pacific Islander identities [Film; DVD]. Pacific Stories.
Writer & Director
Cullen, P. (Director), & Elliott, J. (Writer). (2004). The stolen eye [Film; DVD]. Admire Productions.
Gibson, L. (Writer & Director). (2011). Fehuluni. In A. Batalibasi & L. Pa’apa’a (Producers), Pacific stories: A film project exploring Pacific Islander identities [Film; DVD]. Pacific Stories.
Radio or television episode
Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (year). Title of episode [Television series episode OR Radio series episode]. In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer), Television or radio series name. https://xxxxxx
MacAskill, W. (2015, September 29). Effective altruism, doing good better [Radio series episode]. In K. Ryan (Host), Nine to noon. Radio New Zealand. https://www.rnz.co.nz/national/programmes/ninetonoon/audio/201772518/effective-altruism,-doing-good-better
Turner, H., & Roberts, A. (2014, May 12). Teacher racism [Television series episode]. In M. Forbes (Host), Native affairs. Māori Television. https://www.maoritelevision.com/news/education/native-affairs-teacher-racism
- For interviews housed in digital or physical archives, credit the interviewee as the author.
- In-text citations:
(MacAskill, 2015) OR MacAskill (2015) ...
(Turner & Roberts, 2014) OR Turner and Roberts (2014) ...