Music

Music recordings

In-text citation

Cormack and Houstoun's recording of the Sonata in C (Lilburn, 2013, track 2) takes a fresh approach to ...

Note: Include side, band or track numbers, if relevant.

Reference list

The following are the bibliographic details required. Note the order and format in which they are presented.

Composer, C. C. (Year of copyright). Title of song or work [Recorded by A. A. Artist, if different from composer]. On Title of the album [medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from copyright date)

Note: Use the lower case for the initial letters of words except the first one, unless it is a proper noun.

Examples

Composer and recording artists are different

Lilburn, D. (2013). Sonata in C [Recorded by J. Cormack and M. Houstoun]. On Lilburn duos for violin & piano [CD]. Auckland, New Zealand: Atoll.

The title of the work and the album are exactly the same

Bruckner, A. (1996). Symphony no. 1 [Recorded by Chicago Symphony Orchestra, conducted by G. Solti]. On Symphony no. 1 [CD]. London, England: Decca.

Recording artist is the same as the composer

Davis, M. (1986). Blue in green. On Kind of blue [CD]. New York, NY: Columbia. (1962)

Sound recording via Naxos

Bernstein, L., & Sondheim, S. (2002). Somewhere [Recorded by the Nashville Symphony Orchestra, conducted by K. Schermerhorn]. On West Side Story [Streaming audio]. Hong Kong, China: Naxos Rights International. Retrieved from http://naxosmusiclibrary.com/

Barrière, J. (n.d.). Cello sonatas [Recorded by D. Simpson, N. Spieth, A. Ladrette, E. Andreyev]. [Streaming audio]. Sigean, France: Solstice. Retrieved from http://naxosmusiclibrary.com/

Note: If you cannot find the date on Naxos use n.d. (no date).

More examples of music recordings are shown on the APA Style blog, How to Cite Recorded Music in APA Style (+ Playlist).

Published music scores

Published music scores are referenced like books and book chapters. Here are some examples:

Music score

In-text citation

The three rag-caprices (Milhaud, 1928) were composed a year before the much better-known Création du monde, and many of the rhythmic and harmonic innovations in the later work can be traced back to these piano pieces.

Mihaud's three rag-caprices (1928) were composed a year before …

Reference list

Composer, C. C. (Year of Publication). Title of score [Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Milhaud, D. (1928). Trois rag–caprices pour piano à deux mains [Score].Vienna, Austria: Universal Edition.

More examples are shown on the APA Style blog, How to Cite a Music Score.

Music score from an anthology or collected work

In-text citation

The Italian symphony has often been included in surveys of 19th-century repertoire, as evidenced by its inclusion in Lang’s seminal anthology (Mendelssohn, 1969).

Reference List

Composer, C. C. (Year of Publication). Title of score. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of anthology (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx–xxx). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Mendelssohn, F. (1969). Symphony no. 4 in A major [Miniature score]. In P. H. Lang (Ed.), The symphony 1800–1900: A Norton music anthology (pp. 281–347). New York, NY: W. W. Norton.

Note: Examples of medium include the following: score, choral score, miniature score, orchestral score, libretto, song lyrics, etc.