In-text citations

Summarised or paraphrased material

Include the author and year in the in-text citation. Include a page number if it helps a reader locate the section in a long or complex text.

Research on authoritative child-rearing practices indicates ... (Cole & Cole, 2000)

According to Cole and Cole (2000), authoritarian parents ...

  • Include an in-text citation whenever you summarise, paraphrase or quote from another source.
  • Use the author's last name and year of publication either inside parentheses or with the author name in the text of your essay and date in parentheses. The “and” is written as an ampersand (&) inside parentheses.

Quotations

Bell, Greene, Fisher, and Baum (2001) define environmental psychology as “the study of the molar relationships between behaviour and experience and the built and natural environment” (p. 6).

Environmental psychology is “the study of the molar relationships between behaviour and experience and the built and natural environment” (Bell, Greene, Fisher, & Baum, 2001, p. 6).

If you use the exact words of the author, put the:

  • Quotation in quotation marks.
  • Include the author, year of publication and page numbers in-text.
  • A quotation of 40 or more words should be formatted as a freestanding, indented block of text without quotation marks.

More than one source in text

Many studies suggest ... (Davies, 1990; Humphries & Peters, 2005; Johnson, 1995, 2000, 2005; Robertson, 2000a, 2000b; Weber, 2004).

  • List your references alphabetically, separated with a semicolon.
  • List works by the same author in order of date of publication e.g. (Johnson, 1995, 2000, 2005)
  • For works by the same author published in the same year, the references are identified by the use of a, b etc. Give a to the reference whose title comes first alphabetically, b to the one whose title comes next etc. (Robertson, 2002a, 2002b). See authors for more information.