Summarised or paraphrased material
Include the author and year in the in-text citation. Include a page number if it helps a reader locate the section in a long or complex text.
Research on authoritative child-rearing practices indicates ... (Cole & Cole, 2000).
According to Cole and Cole (2000), authoritarian parents ...
- Include an in-text citation whenever you summarise, paraphrase or quote from another source.
- Use the author’s last name and year of publication either inside parentheses or with the author name in the text of your essay and date in parentheses. The “and” is written as an ampersand (&) inside parentheses.
Bell, Greene, Fisher, and Baum (2001) define environmental psychology as “the study of the molar relationships between behaviour and experience and the built and natural environment” (p. 6).
Environmental psychology is “the study of the molar relationships between behaviour and experience and the built and natural environment” (Bell, Greene, Fisher, & Baum, 2001, p. 6).
If you use the exact words of the author, put the:
- Quotation in quotation marks.
- Include the author, year of publication and page numbers in text.
- Ellipses (...) can usually be omitted from the beginning and end of a quotation (Punctuation Junction: Quotation Marks and Ellipses on the APA Style Blog)
- A quotation of 40 or more words should be formatted as a freestanding, indented block of text without quotation marks; see detailed explanations at Block Quotations in APA Style (APA Style Blog)
- See also Let’s Talk About Research Participants and How to Quote Research Participants in Translation (APA Style Blog)
More than one source in text
Many studies suggest ... (Davies, 1990; Humphries & Peters, 2005; Johnson, n.d., 2000, 2005, in press; Robertson, 2000a, 2000b; Weber, 2004).
- List your citations alphabetically, separated by a semicolon.
- List works by the same author in order of date of publication e.g. (Johnson, n.d., 2000, 2005, in press)
- For works by the same author published in the same year, the references are identified by the use of a, b, etc. Give a to the reference whose title comes first alphabetically, b to the one whose title comes next, etc. (Robertson, 2002a, 2002b). See authors for more information.