Encyclopedias and dictionaries

Encyclopedias and dictionaries are referenced in a similar format to books.

Article in an encyclopedia

In-text citation

According to Connor (2001) .... OR Research indicates ... (Connor, 2001)

If there is no author, cite in text the first few words of the title and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title, e.g.

Research indicates ... (“Autism,” 2009)

Reference list – print example

Connor, M . (2001). Health behaviors. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (Vol. 10, pp. 6506–6512). Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier Science.

No author

Capitalism. (2000). In A. G. Johnson (Ed.), The Blackwell dictionary of sociology (pp. 31–33). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

  • Begin reference with the title of the article

Reference list – electronic example

Blatt, G. (2011). Autism. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.search.eb.com/eb/article-9011351

  • Include the URL or DOI in place of the publication information

No author

Autism. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/44667/autism

Dictionary

Print example

Transnationalism. (2002). In C. Calhoun (Ed.), Dictionary of the social sciences. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Electronic example

White, L. J. (2011). Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the crisis in US mortgage finance. In S. N. Durlauf & L. E. Blume (Eds.), The new Palgrave dictionary of economics (2nd ed.). https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230226203

  • Include the URL or DOI in place of the publication information

No author

Discrimination. (2009). In J. Scott & G. Marshall (Eds.), A dictionary of sociology. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/