IEEE Reference Style Guide

The below examples are taken from the IEEE Reference Guide, which features further examples for other types of resources. IEEE also publishes style manuals related to grammar, rendering mathematical equations, and other elements of formatting on its website.

Overview

IEEE is a numbered referencing style, where citations are provided as a bracketed number in the text (i.e. “as demonstrated in [1]”), which corresponds to a numbered reference list at the end of the document. The reference list is therefore arranged in the order that works are cited in the text, not in alphabetical order. Only one reference is given per reference number. Repeated references to a publication carry the same reference number; a resource is only listed once in the reference list.

In the text, citations should be given simply as "in [1] ...," rather than as "in reference [1] ..." It is not necessary to mention either author names or publication dates in the text unless they are specifically relevant to the discussion. If a specific page or figure needs to be highlighted, this can be done in-text, i.e., [5, pp. 4-6], or [10, Fig. 1].

The reference list should only include the references, with no commentary or introductory phrases such as “For example, see.” If necessary, such commentary should be included in the text or in a footnote on the same page as the citation.

Example

Text:

As demonstrated in [1]… Other studies [2], [3] have found…  

References:

[1] M. M. Chiampi and L. L. Zilberti, “Induction of electric field in human bodies moving near MRI: An efficient BEM computational procedure,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 2787–2793, Oct. 2011, doi: 10.1109/TBME.2011.2158315.

[2] G. Veruggio, “The EURON roboethics roadmap,” in Proc. Humanoids ’06: 6th IEEE-RAS Int. Conf. Humanoid Robots, 2006, pp. 612–617, doi: 10.1109/ICHR.2006.321337.

[3] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 1986

 

General rules

Author names

Where there are more than six authors of a publication, include only the first author’s name followed by “et al.

Abbreviations

IEEE style requires abbreviation of publisher names, journal titles, and some other elements of references (see examples below). An abbreviation guide for common terms and publisher names can be found in their Reference Guide (http://journals.ieeeauthorcenter.ieee.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/7/IEEE-Reference-Guide.pdf).

 

Books

Format

J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of His Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, (only U.S. State), Country: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx.

Example

B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 1986.

Chapter in edited book

R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA, USA: Academic, 1977, pp. 47–160.

eBook

G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, vol. 3, Polymers of Hexadromicon, J. Peters, Ed., 2nd ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15–64. [Online]. Available: http://www.bookref.com.

 

Journals

Format

J. K. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year, doi: xxx.

Example

M. M. Chiampi and L. L. Zilberti, “Induction of electric field in human bodies moving near MRI: An efficient BEM computational procedure,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 2787–2793, Oct. 2011, doi: 10.1109/TBME.2011.2158315.

For print journals, end reference after year.

Online (no DOI)

Provide permalink or homepage URL of journal.

W. P. Risk, G. S. Kino, and H. J. Shaw, “Fiber-optic frequency shifter using a surface acoustic wave incident at an oblique angle,” Opt. Lett., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 115–117, Feb. 1986. [Online]. Available: http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-11-2-115

Published online ahead of print

P. Kopyt et al., “Electric properties of graphene-based conductive layers from DC up to terahertz range,” IEEE THz Sci. Technol., to be published. doi: 10.1109/TTHZ.2016.2544142.

 

Articles from conference proceedings (published)

Format

J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” in Abbreviated Name of Conf., (location of conference is optional—City, State, Country), year, pp. xxx– xxx, doi: xxx.

For print versions, end reference after page numbers.

Example

G. Veruggio, “The EURON roboethics roadmap,” in Proc. Humanoids ’06: 6th IEEE-RAS Int. Conf. Humanoid Robots, 2006, pp. 612–617, doi: 10.1109/ICHR.2006.321337.

Online (no DOI)

T. Schubert, “Real challenges and solutions for validating system-on-chip high level formal verification of nextgeneration microprocessors,” in Proc. 40th Design Automation Conf. (DAC’03), Jun. 2–6, 2003. [Online]. Available: http://www.computer.org/csdl/proceedings/dac/2003/2394/00/2394001-abs.html

Proceedings with editor

A. Amador-Perez and R. A. Rodriguez-Solis, “Analysis of a CPW-fed annular slot ring antenna using DOE,” in Proc. IEEE Antennas Propag. Soc. Int. Symp., A. Amador-Perez and R. A. Rodriguez-Solis, Eds. Jul. 2006, pp. 4301–4304.

 

Conference paper online (unpublished)

Format

J. K. Author. (Date). Title. Presented at Abbreviated Conf. title. [Type of Medium]. Available: site/path/file

Example

J. A. Taylor. (Nov. 2006). Assessment: A tool for development and engagement in the first year of university study. Presented at Engaging Students: 9th Pacific Rim in Higher Education (FYHE) Conf., Griffith, Australia. [Online]. Available: http://www.fyhe.com.au/past_papers/2006/Papers/Taylor.pdf

 

Standards and patents

Format

Title of Standard, Standard number, date. [Online]. Available: http://www.url.com

Include online availability if applicable.

J. K. Author, “Title of patent,” Country Patent xxx, Abbrev. Month, day, year.

Examples

IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.

J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, Jul. 16, 1990.

 

Reports

Format

J. K. Author, “Title of report,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Country, Rep. xxx, year.

Example

P. Diament, S. L. Richert, and W. L. Lupatkin, “V-line surface-wave radiation and scanning,” Dept. Elect. Eng., Columbia Univ., New York, NY, USA, Sci. Rep. 85, Aug. 1991.

 

Website

Format

First Name Initial(s) Last Name. “Page Title.” Website Title. Web Address (retrieved Date Accessed).

For websites without formal titles provide descriptive phrases instead of page or website titles.

Example

J. Smith. “Obama inaugurated as President.” CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obama_inaugurated/index.html (accessed Feb. 1, 2009).