- Author (Lastname, Initials)
- Year of publication
- Title (capitalise only first word of title and of subtitle and proper nouns)
For specific types of references accessed online, such as books and book chapters, journal articles, newspaper articles, encyclopedias and dictionaries, see the relevant pages on how to reference them. They are not referenced as websites.
Author, A. (Year). Title of document. Retrieved from http://...
According to Wilkins (2018) ...
Plastic bags are ... (Wilkins, 2018).
Wilkins, A. (2018). NZ Govt yet to address single-use plastic bags, despite Australia’s progress. Retrieved from https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2018/06/nz-govt-yet-to-address-single-use-plastic-bags-despite-australia-s-progress.html
- The title of an ordinary web page is not italicised, as it is part of a website. Use italics only for standalone works, such as distinct documents and reports. If it is difficult to determining whether something stands alone, do not italicise. See How to Capitalize and Format Reference Titles in APA Style (APA Style Blog)
- See Writing Website In-Text Citations and References (APA Style Blog) for guidance on website authors, dates and in-text citations, and What to do when some of this information is missing (also from APA)
- Include a retrieval date if the material is likely to change over time (e.g. wikis, nonarchived social media pages), e.g.
Center for Sustainable Engineering. (2009). Benchmark Assessment. Retrieved February 10, 2015, from http://www.csengin.org/csengine/sub.html?skuvar=147
PDF documents on websites
Ministry of Health. (2015). Suicide facts: Deaths and intentional self-harm hospitalisations 2012. Retrieved from https://www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/publications/suicide-facts-2012-may15-v2.pdf
New Zealand Teachers Council. (2004). Code of ethics for registered teachers. Retrieved from http://www.teacherscouncil.govt.nz/required/ethics/codeofethics.stm
According to Kearsley (n.d.)...
In experiential learning... (Kearsley, n.d.)
Kearsley, G. (n.d.). Experiential learning. Retrieved from http://tip.psychology.org/
- Use the title of the document and date in text. The in-text citation can include just a few words from the title to identify the item in the reference list
Antipsychotics dangerous for elderly with dementia. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_65042.html
- Begin the reference-list entry with the title of the document
According to Grohol (2006) OR
Grohol (2006) believes ...
Grohol, J. M. (2006, August 3). While you sleep, your brain keeps working [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/blog/
- Title is not in italics
- Include the format (blog post) in brackets after the title
- Provide a specific date for material that is published frequently (e.g. blog posts or social media updates)
For more information see How to Cite a Blog Post in APA Style from the APA Style Blog.