Important elements

  • Author (Lastname, Initials)
  • Year of publication
  • Title (capitalise only first word of title and of subtitle and proper nouns)
  • URL

For specific types of references accessed online, such as books and book chapters, journal articles, newspaper articles, encyclopedias and dictionaries, see the relevant pages on how to reference them. They are not referenced as websites.

General format

Author, A. (Year). Title of document. Retrieved from http://...

In-text citation

According to Wilkins (2018) ...
Plastic bags are ... (Wilkins, 2018).

Reference list

Wilkins, A. (2018). NZ Govt yet to address single-use plastic bags, despite Australia’s progress. Retrieved from


Center for Sustainable Engineering. (2009). Benchmark Assessment. Retrieved February 10, 2015, from

PDF documents on websites

Ministry of Health. (2015). Suicide facts: Deaths and intentional self-harm hospitalisations 2012. Retrieved from

Corporate author

New Zealand Teachers Council. (2004). Code of ethics for registered teachers. Retrieved from

No Date

In-text citation

According to Kearsley (n.d.)...
In experiential learning... (Kearsley, n.d.)

Reference list

Kearsley, G. (n.d.). Experiential learning. Retrieved from

No Author

In-text citation

(Antipsychotics, 2008)

  • Use the title of the document and date in text. The in-text citation can include just a few words from the title to identify the item in the reference list

Reference list

Antipsychotics dangerous for elderly with dementia. (2008). Retrieved from

  • Begin the reference-list entry with the title of the document

Blog Post

In-text citation

According to Grohol (2006) OR
Grohol (2006) believes ...

Reference list

Grohol, J. M. (2006, August 3). While you sleep, your brain keeps working [Blog post]. Retrieved from


  • Title is not in italics
  • Include the format (blog post) in brackets after the title
  • Provide a specific date for material that is published frequently (e.g. blog posts or social media updates)

For more information see How to Cite a Blog Post in APA Style from the APA Style Blog.