Legal resources

  • This guide is for students who are studying non-law disciplines. Law students should refer to The New Zealand Law Style Guide.
  • The guidelines below are for New Zealand cases, Acts and regulations. For other jurisdictions, see Chapter 11 in the APA manual, which largely follows The Bluebook, held in print at the UC Library.

Cases

Reported cases

Reference list

Case name Year Volume number Report series abbreviation First page number (Court abbreviation if not obvious from the report title), e.g.

Baugh v. Sales Tax Collector [1981] 1 NZLR 239 (CA).

R. v. Noble (2006) 22 CRNZ 422 (HC).

  • [Year] is used if the year acts as the volume number, as with NZLR from 1916
  • (Year of the decision) is used if the report is a consecutively numbered series from the first volume

The official neutral citation is included after the case name (and then no court abbreviation is needed), e.g.

Kain v. Hutton [2008] NZSC 61, [2008] 3 NZLR 589.

Z v. Dental Complaints Assessment Committee [2008] NZSC 55, [2009] 1 NZLR 1.

For Māori Land Court and Māori Appellate Court cases, follow NZLSG rule 3.5, but include a full stop after the ‘v’ in the case name, e.g.

Bell v. Churton – Mataimoana (2019) 410 Aotea MB 244 (410 AOT 244).

In-text citation

Case name (year) or (Case name, year), e.g.

Baugh v. Sales Tax Collector (1981) or (Baugh v. Sales Tax Collector, 1981)

Bell v. Churton (2019) or (Bell v. Churton2019)

Use the year of the neutral citation in text, even when it differs from the year of the report series, e.g.

(Z v. Dental Complaints Assessment Committee, 2008)

In-text citation: Part of a judgment

  • When the judgment being cited contains paragraph numbers, use paragraph numbers to indicate the part cited. Enclose paragraph numbers in square brackets, even if the judgment text itself does not put paragraph numbers in brackets. Do not use “para.” or “paras.”
  • When the judgment does not have paragraph numbers, use the page number instead. The number is used alone, without brackets or any preceding “p.” or “pp.”
  • Precede part numbers with the word “at” and precede any final number in a series with the word “and”

For example,

(Baugh v. Sales Tax Collector, 1981 at 241)

Bell v. Churton (2019 at [18]–[20])

(Bell v. Churton2019 at [18]–[20])

Kain v. Hutton (2008 at [12])

(Kain v. Hutton, 2008 at [20]–[23])

(Z v. Dental Complaints Assessment Committee, 2008 at [22], [24] and [28])

Unreported cases

Reference list

Case name Court abbreviation Location File number, Date of judgment (day month year), e.g.

Burbury v. Apple Commercial Ltd FAMC Christchurch FAM-2005-009-846, 28 April 2005.

The court abbreviation and location are not required for the Supreme Court and Court of Appeal, as the specific court is evident from the file number and they have only one location, e.g.

R. v. Albert CA429/01, 14 March 2002.

In recent years many New Zealand courts have adopted neutral citations, and these neutral citations should be used for unreported cases, e.g.

D’Esposito v Ministry for Primary Industries [2019] NZCA 518.

In-text citation

Case name (year) or (Case name, year), e.g.

Burbury v. Apple Commercial Ltd (2005) or (Burbury v. Apple Commercial Ltd, 2005)

In-text citation: Part of a judgment

Follow the guidance under Reported cases, e.g.

(Burbury v. Apple Commercial Ltd, 2005 at [20]–[26])

Acts and statutes

Reference list

Title of Act Year Enacted. http://xxxxxx (if available online), e.g.

Resource Management Act 1991. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1991/0069/latest/DLM230265.html

In-text citation

Give the name of the Act including the year, e.g.

... in theory there is a sanctioning regime to deter environmental non-compliance (Resource Management Act 1991).

A part of an Act

If referring to a particular part of an Act, include the part details in the in-text citation only.

Reference list

Title of Act Year Enacted. http://xxxxxx (if available online), e.g.

Income Tax Act 2007. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2007/0097/latest/DLM1512385.html

In-text citation

Section BH1 of the Income Tax Act 2007 states that you may be a tax resident in both New Zealand and another country or territory.
OR
You may be a tax resident in both New Zealand and another country or territory... (Income Tax Act 2007, s. BH1).

Bills

Reference list

Title of Bill Year of Introduction (Bill Number-Bar Number). http://xxxxxx (if available online), e.g.

Criminal Cases Review Commission Bill 2018 (106-2). http://www.legislation.govt.nz/bill/government/2018/0106/14.0/LMS90599.html

In-text citation

Give the title of the Bill, the year of introduction, Bill number and bar number, e.g.

The Criminal Cases Review Commission Bill 2018 (106-2) ... OR ... (Criminal Cases Review Commission Bill 2018 (106-2))

A part of a Bill

If referring to a particular part of a Bill, include the part details in the in-text citation only.

Reference list

Title of Bill Year of Introduction (Bill Number-Bar Number). http://xxxxxx (if available online), e.g.

Crimes Amendment Bill 2018 (32-2). http://www.legislation.govt.nz/bill/government/2018/0032/6.0/LMS22743.html

In-text citation

Clause 6 of the Crimes Amendment Bill 2018 (32-2) ... OR ... (Crimes Amendment Bill 2018 (32-2), cl. 6).

Clauses 4–6 of the Crimes Amendment Bill 2018 (32-2) ... OR ... (Crimes Amendment Bill 2018 (32-2), cls. 4–6).

Explanatory notes and select committee reports

Use this method to cite explanatory notes to and select committee reports on a Bill, e.g.

The explanatory note to the Crimes Amendment Bill 2018 (32-1) ... OR ... (Crimes Amendment Bill 2018 (32-1) (explanatory note))

The select committee report on the Crimes Amendment Bill 2018 (32-2) ... OR ... (Crimes Amendment Bill 2018 (32-2) (select committee report))

To indicate the part of the note or report, use the legal-style method to pinpoint, e.g.

The explanatory note to the Crimes Amendment Bill 2018 (32-1) (at 2) ... OR ... (Crimes Amendment Bill 2018 (32-1) (explanatory note) at 2)

Regulations/Legislative Instruments

Regulations are cited in a similar way to Acts. Parts of regulations are indicated in the in-text citation by reg. or regs.; parts of an order by cl. or cls.; parts of rules by r. or rr.

Reference list

Name of regulation. http://xxxxxx (if available online), e.g.

Education (Registration of Early Childhood Services Teachers) Regulations 2004. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/regulation/public/2004/0236/latest/DLM276730.html

In-text citation

... reg. 2(1) of the Education (Registration of Early Childhood Services Teachers) Regulations 2004...

OR

... (Education (Registration of Early Childhood Services Teachers) Regulations 2004, reg. 2(1))

OR at the start of a sentence

Regulation 2(1) of the Education (Registration of Early Childhood Services Teachers) Regulations 2004...

Parliamentary Debates (Hansard)

Reference list

Speaker, S. (Year, Month Day). Subject details. Volume NZPD Start page. URL

Genter, J. A. (2017, August 16). Maritime Amendment Bill—Second reading. 724 NZPD 20323. https://www.parliament.nz/resource/en-NZ/HansD_20170816_20170816/41c2a9d85130b60857cbb71e30a63405628ec4e3

Joyce, S. (2017, November 9). Address in reply. 725 NZPD 147. https://www.parliament.nz/resource/en-NZ/HansD_20171109_20171109/a6c59672a4367b1ada003b5c2b8b4e48e7da8293

In-text citations

Genter (2017) ... OR ... (Genter, 2017)

Joyce (2017) ... OR ... (Joyce, 2017)

  • Omit the start page from the reference for recent debates that are not yet incorporated into a print volume or PDF.
  • The template in The Bluebook and in the New Zealand Law Style Guide cannot work with APA style. The suggested template above adapts the template in the New Zealand Law Style Guide for recent debates as this includes speaker and subject details elements.

Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives (AJHR)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of report. House of Representatives. URL

Attorney-General. (2014). Report of the Attorney-General under the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 on the Electronic Monitoring of Offenders Legislation Bill. House of Representatives. https://www.justice.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Publications/BORA-Electronic-Monitoring-of-Offenders-Legislation-Bill.pdf

Education and Science Committee. (2016, November). Inquiry into the identification and support for students with the significant challenges of dyslexia, dyspraxia, and autism spectrum disorders in primary and secondary schools. House of Representatives. https://www.parliament.nz/resource/en-NZ/51DBSCH_SCR71769_1/cd88907f3c87d07b8b1db046417ed1e43fcd3e85

In-text citation

Attorney-General (2014) … OR … (Attorney-General, 2014)

Education and Science Committee (2016) ... OR ... (Education and Science Committee, 2016)

Reference the individual report if available in APA style, as shown above.

It may be necessary, particularly for older reports, to cite the entry in the AJHR volumes. In this situation, follow the the APA style for journal articles. For AJHR references the years are doing double duty as the volume number:

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year or years of the volumes). Document title. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, Year or years of the volumes(Composite volume number), Shoulder number.

Attorney-General. (2014–2017). Report of the Attorney-General under the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 on the Electronic Monitoring of Offenders Legislation Bill. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 2014–2017(8), J.4. https://www.parliament.nz/media/4773/ajhr-vol-7-51st-parliament.pdf

Palmer, G. (1984–1985). A Bill of Rights for New Zealand: A white paper. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1984–1985(1), A.6.

In-text citations

Attorney-General (2014–2017) … OR … (Attorney-General, 2014–2017)

Palmer (1984–1985) … OR … (Palmer, 1984–1985)

The Laws of New Zealand

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year). Title. In The Laws of New Zealand. LexisNexis NZ. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://advance.lexis.com

Butler, A. S., & Butler, P. (2020). Human rights. In The Laws of New Zealand. LexisNexis NZ. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://advance.lexis.com

Williams, J. (2020). Treaty of Waitangi. In The Laws of New Zealand. LexisNexis NZ. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://advance.lexis.com

In-text citation

Butler and Butler (2020, para. 61) … OR … (Butler & Butler, 2020, para. 61)

Williams (2020, paras. 7–12) … OR … (Williams, 2020, paras. 7–12)

  • The Laws of New Zealand is an online encyclopedia.
  • Use the year of ‘the law is stated as at’ date of the title in the date element of the reference (APA Manual, p. 290, section 9.15).
  • The title is the title at the top of the hierarchy in the table of contents (“Human Rights” and “Treaty of Waitangi” in the examples above). The “About this Title” page under each title in the encyclopedia provides the date and author names of that title.
  • As The Laws of New Zealand is continually updated and the versions are unarchived, a retrieval date is provided (APA Manual, p. 325, section 33).
  • Indicate the part of the title cited by using paragraph numbers in the in-text citation. Use para. for a single paragraph and paras. for several paragraphs.

Multilateral treaties

Reference list

Name of Treaty or Convention, Month Day, Year, https://xxxxxx (if available online)

United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, November 20, 1989, https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx

  • Conventions that are the product of an international organisation should either include the organisation’s name as part of the name of the agreement or be preceded by that name
    (guidance from APA Style Experts [personal communication, February 26, 2020]).
  • The date is when the treaty was opened for signature or was signed or approved.

In-text citation

Name of Treaty or Convention (Year) ...  OR ... (Name of Treaty or Convention, Year)

United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) ... OR ... (United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989)

Te Tiriti o Waitangi/Treaty of Waitangi

Reference list

Te Tiriti o Waitangi, 1840. https://waitangitribunal.govt.nz/treaty-of-waitangi/te-reo-maori-version/

Treaty of Waitangi, 1840. http://www.treatyofwaitangi.maori.nz/

  • Include the URL of the source you use

In-text citation

Te Tiriti o Waitangi (1840) ... OR ... (Te Tiriti o Waitangi, 1840)

Treaty of Waitangi (1840) ... OR ... (Treaty of Waitangi, 1840)

Citing a specific article

There are several ways to refer to a specific article, e.g.

  • Article 1 of Te Tiriti o Waitangi (1840)
  • Article 1 of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840)
  • Te Tiriti o Waitangi (1840, art. 1)...
  • The Treaty of Waitangi (1840, art. 1)...
  • ... (Te Tiriti o Waitangi, 1840, art. 1)
  • ... (Treaty of Waitangi, 1840, art. 1)

Waitangi Tribunal reports

Reference list

Waitangi Tribunal. (2010). The East Coast settlement report (Wai 2190). https://waitangitribunal.govt.nz/publications-and-resources/waitangi-tribunal-reports

In-text citation

Waitangi Tribunal (2010) ... OR ... (Waitangi Tribunal, 2010)