Legal resources

  • This guide is for students who are studying non-law disciplines. Law students should refer to The New Zealand Law Style Guide.
  • The guidelines below are for New Zealand cases, Acts and regulations. For other jurisdictions, see this introduction from the APA Style blog – it refers to the Bluebook, held in print at the UC Library.

Cases

Reported cases

In-text citation

Case name (year) or (Case name, year), e.g.

Baugh v. Sales Tax Collector (1981) or (Baugh v. Sales Tax Collector, 1981)

Reference list

Case name Year Volume number Report series abbreviation First page number (Court abbreviation if not obvious from the report title), e.g.

Baugh v. Sales Tax Collector [1981] 1 NZLR 239 (CA).

R. v. Noble (2006) 22 CRNZ 422 (HC).

  • [Year] is used if the year acts as the volume number, as with NZLR from 1916
  • (Year of the decision) is used if the report is a consecutively numbered series from the first volume

The official neutral citation is included after the case name (and then no court abbreviation is needed), e.g.

Kain v. Hutton [2008] NZSC 61, [2008] 3 NZLR 589.

Unreported cases

In-text citation

Case name (year) or (Case name, year), e.g.

Everist v. Apple Commercial Ltd (2005) or (Everist v. Apple Commercial Ltd, 2005)

Reference list

Case name Court abbreviation Location File number, Date of judgment (day month year), e.g.

Everist v. Apple Commercial Ltd FAMC Christchurch FAM-2005-009-846, 28 April 2005.

The court abbreviation and location are not required for the Supreme Court and Court of Appeal, as the specific court is evident from the file number and they have only one location, e.g.

R. v. Albert CA429/01, 14 March 2002.

In recent years many New Zealand courts have adopted neutral citations, and these neutral citations should be used for unreported cases, e.g.

R. v. Fowler [2007] NZCA 1.

Acts and statutes

In-text citation

Give the name of the Act including the year, e.g.

...violence against that person by any other person with whom that person is, or has been, in a domestic relationship (Domestic Violence Amendment Act 2012).

Reference list

Name of Act. Retrieved from ... (if available online), e.g

Domestic Violence Amendment Act 2012. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2012/0010/latest/whole.html

A part of an Act

If referring to a particular part of an Act, include the part details in the in-text citation only.

In-text citation

You may be a tax resident in both New Zealand and another country or territory... (Income Tax Act 2007, s. BH1).
or
Section BH1 of the Income Tax Act 2007 states that you may be a tax resident in both New Zealand and another country or territory.

Reference list

Name of Act. Retrieved from ... (if available online), e.g.

Income Tax Act 2007. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2007/0097/latest/DLM1512385.html

Regulations / Legislative Instruments

Regulations are cited in a similar way to Acts. Parts of regulations are indicated in the in-text citation by reg. or regs.; parts of an order by cl. or cls.; parts of rules by r. or rr.

In-text citation

... reg. 2(1) of the Education (Registration of Early Childhood Services Teachers) Regulations 2004...

Reference list

Name of regulation. Retrieved from ... (if available online), e.g.

Education (Registration of Early Childhood Services Teachers) Regulations 2004. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.govt.nz/

Multilateral treaties

In-text citation

Title of Agreement (year) or (Title of Agreement, year), e.g.

Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) or (Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989)

Reference list

Title of Agreement, date, volume number volume name page number. Retrieved from ... (if available online)

  • The date is when the treaty was opened for signature or was signed

Convention on the Rights of the Child, Nov. 20, 1989, 1577 U.N.T.S. 3. Retrieved from http://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%201577/v1577.pdf

  • Omit volume details if not found on the version you have used

Convention on the Rights of the Child, Nov. 20, 1989. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CRC.aspx

Treaty of Waitangi

In-text citation

Treaty of Waitangi (1840) or (Treaty of Waitangi, 1840)

Citing a specific Treaty article

There are several ways to cite a specific Treaty e.g.

  • Article 1 of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840)
  • The Treaty of Waitangi (1840, art. 1)
  • (Treaty of Waitangi, 1840, art. 1)

Reference list

Treaty of Waitangi, 1840. Retrieved from http://www.treatyofwaitangi.maori.nz/ (use the web address of the source you use)

Find out more about citing treaties and international agreements