Lecture notes, Echo360 and PowerPoint slides

Lecture notes

Check with your lecturer before referencing lecture notes. Some lecturers may not regard it as suitable.

Reference list

No entry.

  • Course lecture notes taken by a student are considered ‘personal communication’ as they are unpublished and ‘non-retrievable’. For this reason, they are only cited within the text and not included in the reference list.

In-text citation

For example, lecture notes taken for a lecture given by Professor N. M. Blampied:

According to Professor N. M. Blampied (personal communication, May 5, 2020) ... OR

It is reported that... (Professor N. M. Blampied, personal communication, May 5, 2020).

Echo360 course recordings in LEARN

Treat Echo360 recordings as personal communications, as they are only available to course participants and typically for a limited period of time. 

PowerPoint slides on LEARN

As these are in a format that can be retrieved, they need to be treated more formally.

Reference list

Blampied, N. M. (2020). Learning and behaviour change [PowerPoint slides]. LEARN. https://learn.canterbury.ac.nz

In-text citation

Use the author’s family name and date, e.g.

According to Blampied (2020) ... OR
Research indicates ... (Blampied, 2020)

Lecturer’s own notes on LEARN

Reference list

Blampied, N. M. (2020). Learning and behaviour change [Lecture notes]. LEARN. https://learn.canterbury.ac.nz

Blampied, N. M. (2020). [Lecture notes on learning and behaviour change]. LEARN. https://learn.canterbury.ac.nz

  • The second example is used for untitled manuscripts (e.g. an untitled Word document)

In-text citation

Use the author’s family name and date, e.g.

According to Blampied (2020) ... OR
Research indicates ... (Blampied, 2020)

  • Include the LEARN website name followed by the LEARN homepage URL if you retrieved the work from LEARN.
  • See also Classroom or Intranet Resources (APA website).