Lecture notes, Echo360 and PowerPoint slides

Check with your lecturer before referencing lecture notes. Some lecturers may not regard it as suitable.

Reference list

No entry.

  • Course lecture notes taken by a student are considered ‘personal communication’ as they are unpublished and ‘non-retrievable’. For this reason, they are only cited within the text and not included in the reference list.

In-text citation

For example, lecture notes taken for a lecture given by Professor N. M. Blampied:

According to Professor N. M. Blampied (personal communication, May 5, 2020) ... OR

It is reported that... (Professor N. M. Blampied, personal communication, May 5, 2020).

Treat Echo360 recordings as personal communication as they are only available to course participants and typically for a limited period of time.

As these can be retrieved by course members, they are treated more formally.

Reference list

Lecturer, L. L. (Year). Title of presentation: Subtitle of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. LEARN. https://learn.canterbury.ac.nz

Blampied, N. M. (2020). Learning and behaviour change [PowerPoint slides]. LEARN. https://learn.canterbury.ac.nz

In-text citation

Use the author’s family name and year, for example

Blampied (2020) ... OR ... (Blampied, 2020)

Reference list

Lecturer, L. L. (Year). Title of notes: Subtitle of notes [Lecture notes]. LEARN. https://learn.canterbury.ac.nz

Lecturer, L. L. (Year). [Lecture notes on topic]. LEARN. https://learn.canterbury.ac.nz

Blampied, N. M. (2022). Learning and behaviour change [Lecture notes]. LEARN. https://learn.canterbury.ac.nz

Blampied, N. M. (2022). [Lecture notes on learning and behaviour change]. LEARN. https://learn.canterbury.ac.nz

  • Create a brief title within [ ] for untitled lecture notes, for example an untitled PDF or Word document.

In-text citation

Use the author’s family name and year, for example

Blampied (2022) ... OR ... (Blampied, 2022)

  • Include the LEARN website name followed by the LEARN homepage URL if you retrieved the work from LEARN.
  • See also Classroom or Intranet Resources (APA Style website).