Lecture notes and PowerPoint slides

Lecture notes

Check with your lecturer before referencing lecture notes. Some lecturers may not regard it as suitable.

In-text citation

Course lecture notes taken by a student are considered ‘personal communication’ as they are unpublished and ‘non-retrievable’. For this reason, they are only cited within the text and not included in the Reference List. For example, lecture notes taken for a lecture given by Professor N. M. Blampied:

It is reported that... (Professor N. M. Blampied, personal communication, May 5, 2015).

PowerPoint slides on LEARN

As these are in a format that can be retrieved, they need to be treated more formally.

In-text citation

Use the author’s family name and date, e.g.

According to Blampied (2015) ... OR
Research indicates ... (Blampied, 2015)

Reference list

Blampied, N. M. (2015). Learning and behaviour change [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://learn.canterbury.ac.nz/

  • Include the file format in brackets after the lecture (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).
  • Include the LEARN homepage url if you retrieved the slides from LEARN.