Books

Important elements

  • Author(s) (lastname, initials)
  • Year of publication
  • Title (in italics, capitalise only the first word of title and subtitle and proper nouns)
  • Edition (other than 1st)
  • Place of publication (City, Country Name in full; except US City, Two-letter state abbreviation)
  • Publisher

Single author

In-text citation

According to Zirpoli (2008) .... OR
It has been suggested that ... (Zirpoli, 2008)

Reference list

Zirpoli, T. J. (2008). Behavior management: Applications for teachers (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Two authors

In-text citation

Cox and Gould (1998) found that .... OR
Research indicates ... (Cox & Gould, 1998)

Reference list

Cox, R. C., & Gould, M. H. (1998). Civil engineering heritage: Ireland. London, United Kingdom: Thomas Telford.

Note:

  • List both authors in every in-text citation.
  • Use "and" when it is part of your text, use & in-text when the author names are in parentheses.

Three, four or five authors

In-text citation

Cite all authors the first time. In subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year, e.g.

As discussed by Hall, Timothy, and Duval (2007) OR Research indicates ... (Hall, Timothy, & Duval, 2007)

Subsequent citations

As discussed by Hall et al. (2007) OR Research indicates ... (Hall et al., 2007)

Reference list

Hall, C. M., Timothy, D. J., & Duval, D. T. (2007). Safety and security in tourism: Relationships, management and marketing. Mumbai, India: Jaico Publishing House.

Six or seven authors

In-text citation

List the first author followed by "et al.," e.g.

Davidson et al. (2008) found OR Research indicates ... (Davidson et al., 1967)

Reference list

List all authors.

Eight or more authors

In-text citation

List the first author followed by "et al." e.g.

Barrett et al. (2012) argue OR Research indicates ... (Barrett et al., 2012)

Reference list

List the first six authors' names, then insert three dots and add the last author's name, e.g.

Barrett, J. M., Smith, V., Wilson, R. T., Haley, V. A., Clarke, P., Palmer, N. B., ... Fraser, D. (2012)...

Different editions

In-text citation

According to Gray (2014) ... OR
Research indicates (Gray, 2014) ...

Reference list

Gray, P. (2011). Psychology (7th ed.). New York, NY: Worth.

Note

Chapter in an edited book

Important elements

  • Chapter author(s) (lastname, initials)
  • Year of publication
  • Chapter title
  • Editors (names not inverted)
  • Title of book (in italics, capitalise only the first word of title and subtitle and proper nouns)
  • Edition (other than 1st)
  • Page numbers
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

In-text citation

As discussed by Smith (2006) ... Ryan, Ravenswood, and Pringle (2014) also noted ... OR
Research indicates ... (Ryan, Ravenswood, & Pringle, 2014; Smith, 2006)

Reference list

Ryan, I., Ravenswood, K., & Pringle, J. K. (2014). Equality and diversity in Aotearoa New Zealand. In A. Klarsfeld, L. A. E. Booysen, E. Ng, I. Roper, & A. Tatli (Eds.), International handbook on diversity management at work: Country perspectives on diversity and equal treatment (2nd ed., pp. 175–194). Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Elgar.

Smith, M. L. (2006). Multiple methodology in education research. In J. L. Green, G. Camilli, & P. B. Elmore (Eds.), Handbook of complementary methods in education research (pp. 457–475). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

An example of separately titled volume with volume editors in a multivolumed book with a general editor 

Haith, M. M., & Benson, J. B. (1998). Infant cognition. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 2: Cognition, perception, and language (D. Kuhn & R. Siegler, Vol. Eds., 5th ed., pp. 199–254). New York, NY: Wiley.

Electronic book

Include the doi or URL of the site where you accessed the book in place of the publisher information:

  • Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx
  • Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. Retrieved from http://www....

If a DOI is available

Zhaoping, L. (2014). Understanding vision: Theory, models, and data. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564668.001.0001

If there is no DOI

Veseth, M. (2010). Globaloney 2.0: The crash of 2008 and the future of globalization (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Zizek, S. (2008). Violence: Six sideways reflections. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.nz/books?id=StAeT3DjIyQC

If the book is from a Library database or if the URL is very long

Truncate the book URL to the home page URL for the eBook provider, e.g.

Book URL: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com.ezproxy.canterbury.ac.nz/lib/canterbury/detail.action?docID=500946

Remove the ezproxy and other details following to create the following URL for your reference: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

If the book has edition and volume numbers

See How to Cite Edition, Volume, and Page Numbers for Books (APA Style Blog)

Electronic book chapter

Include the DOI or URL of the site where you accessed the book:

  • Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). https://doi.org/10.xxxx/ xxxxxx
  • Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). Retrieved from http://www...

Note that two editors in book-chapter references are written as: In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.)

Examples

Goddard, E. D. (2007). Cleaner/conditioner systems: Surface chemical aspects. In L. D. Rhein, M. Schlossman, A. O’Lenick, & P. Somasundaran (Eds.), Surfactants in personal care products and decorative cosmetics (3rd ed., pp. 137–147). Retrieved from https://www.taylorfrancis.com

Lisle, D. (2010). Joyless cosmopolitans: The moral economy of ethical tourism. In J. Best & M. Paterson (Eds.), Cultural political economy (pp. 139–157). Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Jordan, K. (2004). Gender role. In S. Loue & M. Sajatovic (Eds.), Encyclopedia of women's health (pp. 276–278). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-306-48113-0_174

How do I cite material read on a Kindle?

See advice on the APA style blog.