Books and edited book chapters

Important elements

  • Authors (lastname, initials)
  • Year of publication
  • Title (in italics; capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle and also proper nouns)
  • Edition (omit a 1st edition; use Rev. ed. for a revised edition)
  • Publisher or publishers (separate multiple publishers with a semicolon)
  • DOI if available
    • Print books: include the DOI if available, otherwise add nothing after the publisher or publishers.
    • Ebooks: include the DOI if available. If there is no DOI, include the URL only if it is accessible for all readers (do not use a URL from LEARN or a library database). If there is no DOI or accessible URL, add nothing after the publisher or publishers.

Whole authored books

Authored book or ebook without a DOI or any URL accessible to all readers

Cox, R. C., & Gould, M. H. (1998). Civil engineering heritage: Ireland. T. Telford Publications.

Veseth, M. (2010). Globaloney 2.0: The crash of 2008 and the future of globalization (2nd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield.

In-text citation:
Cox and Gould (1998) ... OR (Cox & Gould, 1998)
Veseth (2010) ... OR (Veseth, 2010)

Authored book or ebook with a DOI

Li, Z. (2014). Understanding vision: Theory, models, and data. Oxford University Press.

In-text citation: Li (2014) ... OR (Li, 2014)

Authored ebook with no DOI but with a URL accessible to all readers

Zizek, S. (2008). Violence: Six sideways reflections. Profile Books.

In-text citation: Zizek (2008) ... OR (Zizek, 2008)

Authored book or ebook with multiple publishers

Zirpoli, T. J. (2008). Behavior management: Applications for teachers (5th ed.). Pearson; Merrill Prentice Hall.

In-text citation: Zirpoli (2008) ... OR (Zirpoli, 2008)

Different editions

Gray, P., & Bjorklund, D. F. (2014). Psychology (7th ed.). Worth Publishers.

Varela, F. J., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (with Kabat-Zinn, J.). (2016). The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience (Rev. ed.). The MIT Press.

Witten, I. H., Frank, E., & Hall, M. A. (2011). Data mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques (3rd ed.). Morgan Kaufmann.

In-text citations:
Gray and Bjorklund (2014) ... OR (Gray & Bjorklund, 2014)
Varela et al. ... (2016) OR (Varela et al., 2016)
Witten et al. ... (2011) OR (Witten et al., 2011)


  • The edition number is placed after the title of the work.
  • There is no full stop between the title and the edition number.
  • Omit the edition number if it is the first edition.
  • A revised edition, second revised edition and so on appears as (Rev. ed.), (2nd rev. ed.) and so on in references.

Edited book chapters

Important elements

  • Chapter authors (lastname, initials)
  • Year of publication
  • Chapter title
  • Editors (initials lastname)
  • Title of book (in italics; capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle and also proper nouns)
  • Edition (other than 1st)
  • Page numbers
  • Publisher
  • DOI if available
    • Print books: include the DOI if available, otherwise add nothing after the publisher or publishers.
    • Ebooks: include the DOI if available. If there is no DOI, include the URL only if it is accessible for all readers (do not use a URL from LEARN or a library database). If there is no DOI or accessible URL, add nothing after the publisher or publishers.

Goddard, E. D. (2007). Cleaner/conditioner systems: Surface chemical aspects. In L. D. Rhein, M. Schlossman, A. O’Lenick, & P. Somasundaran (Eds.), Surfactants in personal care products and decorative cosmetics (3rd ed., pp. 137–147). CRC Press.

Jordan, K. Y. (2004). Gender role. In S. Loue & M. Sajatovic (Eds.), Encyclopedia of women's health (pp. 276–278). Springer.

Lisle, D. (2010). Joyless cosmopolitans: The moral economy of ethical tourism. In J. Best & M. Paterson (Eds.), Cultural political economy (pp. 139–157). Routledge.

Ryan, I., Ravenswood, K., & Pringle, J. K. (2014). Equality and diversity in Aotearoa New Zealand. In A. Klarsfeld, L. A. E. Booysen, E. Ng, I. Roper, & A. Tatli (Eds.), International handbook on diversity management at work: Country perspectives on diversity and equal treatment (2nd ed., pp. 175–194). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Smith, M. L. (2006). Multiple methodology in education research. In J. L. Green, G. Camilli, & P. B. Elmore (Eds.), Handbook of complementary methods in education research (pp. 457–475). American Educational Research Association; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

In-text citations:
Goddard (2007) ... OR (Goddard, 2007)
Jordan (2004) ... OR (Jordan, 2004)
Lisle (2010) ... OR (Lisle, 2010)
As discussed by Smith (2006) ... Ryan et al. (2014) also noted ... OR
Research indicates ... (Ryan et al., 2014; Smith, 2006)

Chapters in multivolume edited books – no volume titles

Casida, J. E. (2010). Pest toxicology: The primary mechanisms of pesticide action. In R. Krieger (Ed.), Hayes’ handbook of pesticide toxicology (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 103–117). Academic Press.

Potter, W. J. (2014). Patterns in the use of theory in media effects research. In R. S. Fortner & P. M. Fackler (Eds.), The handbook of media and mass communication theory (Vol. 1, pp. 95–114). Wiley.

In-text citations:
Casida (2010) ... OR (Casida, 2010)
Potter (2014) ... OR (Potter, 2014)

  • If the volume is untitled, include the volume number in parentheses after the book title.

Chapters in multivolume edited books – with volume titles

Dorian, N. C. (2011). The ambiguous arithmetic of language maintenance and revitalization. In J. A. Fishman & O. García (Eds.), Handbook of language & ethnic identity: Vol. 2. The success-failure continuum in language and ethnic identity efforts (pp. 461–471). Oxford University Press.

Haith, M. M., & Benson, J. B. (1998). Infant cognition. In D. Kuhn & R. Siegler (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 2. Cognition, perception, and language (5th ed., pp. 199–254). John Wiley & Sons.

In-text citations:
Dorian (2011) ... OR (Dorian, 2011)
Haith and Benson (1998) OR (Haith & Benson, 1998)

  • If the volume has both series editors (or editors-in-chief) and volume editors, only the volume editors appear in the reference.

Anthologies or collected works

A work in an anthology is referenced like a chapter in an edited book: the work author and work title appear at the beginning of the reference, followed by information about the edited book. In addition, because the work is republished, the publication date of the anthology and the original publication date of the work are included in the reference entry and in-text citation. (Although not specified in the APA 7th Manual, this guidance on anthologies is endorsed by the APA Style Experts [personal communication, February 25, 2020]).

Reference list

James, H. (1992). The friends of the friends. In T. J. Lustig (Ed.), The turn of the screw and other stories (pp. 79–111). Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1909)

In-text citation

James (1909/1992) … OR … (James, 1909/1992)

If an anthology has no editor, simply leave out this element

Reference list

Mahy, M., & Elliot, D. (2017). The remarkable cake. In Summer days: Stories and poems celebrating the Kiwi summer (pp. 116–117). Puffin. (Original work published 1977)

In-text citation

Mahy and Elliot (1977/2017) … OR … (Mahy & Elliot, 1977/2017)

Anthologies ascribed to an author but without an editor

It is best to reference and cite the work in a similar way, whereby the author appears as both the work author and the anthology author, e.g.

Reference list

Nagelkerke, B. (2016). Changed forever. In B. Nagelkerke, The tattooed sisters, and other stories (pp. 39–48). (Original work published 2003)

In-text citation

… (Nagelkerke, 2003/2016) OR Nagelkerke (2003/2016) …

  • The publisher is omitted when the author and publisher are the same.

Illustrated Books

For books in which the illustrations are essential to the content (for example, children’s picture books):

  • Include both the author and the illustrator in the reference if both are given credit on the title page or cover
  • List illustrator names in parentheses after the title, followed by the abbreviation Illus.

Reference list

Cowley, J. (2010). Fly pie (P. Webb, Illus.). Scholastic.

In-text citation

Cowley (2010) ... OR ... (Cowley, 2010)

  • On the title page: “written by Joy Cowley, illustrated by Philip Webb.”

For wordless picture books and graphic novels, author-illustrators have the creative role of telling a story without words and so are treated as authors in the reference:

Reference list

Becker, A. (2013). Journey. Candlewick Press.

In-text citation

Becker (2013) ... OR ... (Becker, 2013)

For books in which the illustrations are supplementary rather than essential, it is unnecessary to credit the illustrator.

  • If you are writing specifically about the illustrations, use the normal reference format and in-text citation. Simply refer to the illustrator in your narrative, for example:

Reference list

Carroll, L. (1993). Alice’s adventures in Wonderland. Dover. (Original work published 1865)

Example narrative in text

Sir John Tenniel’s illustrations are excellent examples of surreal art from the 1800s (Carroll, 1865/1993).

Multivolume books

Whole authored multivolume book – no volume titles

Ilčev, S. D. (2019). Global satellite meteorological observation (GSMO) applications (Vol. 1). Springer.

In-text citation: Ilčev (2019) ... OR (Ilčev, 2019)

Whole authored multivolume book – with volume titles

Russell, N. (2019). Understanding willing participants: Vol. 2. Milgram’s obedience experiments and the Holocaust. Palgrave Macmillan.

In-text citation: Russell (2019) ... OR (Russell, 2019)

Chapters in multivolume edited books

See examples in the Edited book chapter section above.

Books republished in translation (including classical and religious works)

Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of the oppressed (M. B. Ramos, Trans.; Rev. ed.). Penguin. (Original work published 1968)

Plato. (1921). Plato in twelve volumes: Vol. 12. Cratylus, Theaetetus, Sophist, Statesman (H. N. Fowler, Trans.). Harvard University Press; William Heinemann. (Original work published ca. 369 B.C.E.)

Plato. (2015). The republic (B. Jowett, Trans.). First Avenue Editions. (Original work published ca. 380 B.C.E.)

In-text citations:
Freire (1968/1996) ... OR (Freire, 1968/1996)
Plato (ca. 369 B.C.E./1921, Theaetetus 162) ... OR (Plato, ca. 369 B.C.E./1921, Theaetetus 162)
Plato (ca. 380 B.C.E./2015, Book 5) ... OR (Plato, ca. 380 B.C.E./2015, Book 5)

  • For classical or religious works with canonically numbered parts common across editions (books, chapters, verses, lines, cantos and so forth), cite the part instead of a page number

Whole edited book

Scott, C. R., & Lewis, L. (Eds.). (2017). The international encyclopedia of organizational communication. John Wiley & Sons.

In-text citation: Many articles in Scott and Lewis (2017) ... OR Research indicates ... (Scott & Lewis, 2017)

“With” authors

Bolstad, R., & Gilbert, J. (with McDowall, S., Bull, A., Boyd, S., & Hipkins, R.). (2012). Supporting future-oriented learning and teaching: A New Zealand perspective: Report prepared for the Ministry of Education. Ministry of Education.

Morgan, G. (with McCrystal, J.). (2009). After the panic: Surviving bad investments and bad advice. Random House New Zealand.

Plummeridge, C. (with Adams, P.). (2001). Beyond the classroom. In C. Philpott (Ed.), Learning to teach music in the secondary school: A companion to school experience (pp. 222–237). RoutledgeFalmer.

In-text citations:
Bolstad and Gilbert (2012) ... OR (Bolstad & Gilbert, 2012)
Morgan (2009) ... OR (Morgan, 2009)
Plummeridge (2001) ... OR (Plummeridge, 2001)