Author Variations

General rules

  • Invert the author names and use the initials of the first names.
  • List authors in the order they appear on the document
  • If the author’s forenames are hyphenated, include the hyphen with a full stop after each initial, e.g. Tsui, M.-S.

Two authors

Reference list

Ainger, C., & Fenner, R. (2014). Sustainable infrastructure: Principles into practice. ICE Publishing.

Su, C. F., & Picker, M. (Directors). (2001). Mickey Mouse monopoly: Disney, childhood & corporate power [Film]. Media Education Foundation.

In-text citations

Ainger and Fenner (2014) ... OR (Ainger & Fenner, 2014)

Su and Picker (2001) ... OR (Su & Picker, 2001)

Three to 20 authors

Reference list

Huber, M., Knottnerus, J. A., Green, L., van der Horst, H., Jadad, A. R., Kromhout, D., Leonard, B., Lorig, K., Loureiro, M. I., van der Meer, J. W. M., Schnabel, P., Smith, R., van Weel, C., & Smid, H. (2011). How should we define health? BMJ, 343(7817), Article d4163. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d4163

Witten, I. H., Frank, E., & Hall, M. A. (2011). Data mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques (3rd ed.). Morgan Kaufmann.

  • Include all author names in the reference list in the order they appear on the document
  • Separate the final name from the rest with a comma and an ampersand

In-text citations

Huber et al. (2011) ... OR (Huber et al., 2011)

Witten et al. (2011) ... OR (Witten et al., 2011)

21 or more authors

Reference list

Session, A. M., Uno, Y., Kwon, T., Chapman, J. A., Toyoda, A., Takahashi, S., Fukui, A., Hikosaka, A., Suzuki, A., Kondo, M., Heeringen, S. J. van., Quigley, I., Heinz, S., Ogino, H., Ochi, H., Hellsten, U., Lyons, J. B., Simakov, O., Putnam, N., . . . Rokhsar, D. S. (2016). Genome evolution in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis. Nature, 538(7625), 336–343. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19840

  • Include the first 19 authors’ names, insert an ellipsis (...) but no ampersand (&) and then last author's name

In-text citation

Session et al. (2016) argue ... OR Research indicates ... (Session et al., 2016)

Multiple works by same author

Reference list

Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (2004). Changing minds: The art and science of changing our own and other people’s minds. Harvard Business School Press.

In-text citation

As discussed by Gardner (1999, 2004) ... OR Research indicates ... Gardner (1999, 2004)

Multiple works published in the same year by the same author

Note: Multiple citations to different works from the one author from the same year are distinguished by assigning a, b, c, after the year in the entries in the reference list and also after the year in the in-text citations.

Reference list

Graham, S. (2006a). Strategy instruction and the teaching of writing: A meta-analysis. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (pp. 187–207). Guilford Press.

Graham, S. (2006b). Writing. In P. Alexander & P. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 457–478). Erlbaum.

In-text citation

As discussed by Graham (2006a, 2006b) ... OR Recent research suggests ... (Graham, 2006a, 2006b)

“With” authors

If authors are listed with the word with, include them in the reference list in parentheses. The in-text citation, however, refers to the primary author or authors only.

Reference list

Bolstad, R., & Gilbert, J. (with McDowall, S., Bull, A., Boyd, S., & Hipkins, R.). (2012). Supporting future-oriented learning and teaching: A New Zealand perspective: Report prepared for the Ministry of Education. Ministry of Education. https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/schooling/109306

Morgan, G. (with McCrystal, J.). (2009). After the panic: Surviving bad investments and bad advice. Random House New Zealand.

Plummeridge, C. (with Adams, P.). (2001). Beyond the classroom. In C. Philpott (Ed.), Learning to teach music in the secondary school: A companion to school experience (pp. 222–237). RoutledgeFalmer.

In-text citation

Bolstad and Gilbert (2012) ... OR ... (Bolstad & Gilbert, 2012)

Morgan (2009) ... OR ... (Morgan, 2009)

Plummeridge (2001) ... OR ... (Plummeridge, 2001)

No author

Reference list

Autism. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.search.eb.com/eb/article-9011351

McGraw-Hill concise encyclopedia of science & technology (5th ed.). (2005). McGraw-Hill.

  • Place the title in the author position
  • Use sentence case for titles of chapters, books, web pages, etc.

In-text citation

Research indicates ... (“Autism,” 2009)

The McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Science & Technology (2005, p. 29) defines ....

  • Use a few words of the title (or whole title if it is short)
  • If it is an article or chapter title, put the title in quotation marks. If it is a book or web page title, put it in italics
  • Use title case (capitals for every major word) in the body of the paper.

For more information on title case and sentence case capitalisation see the APA Style website.

Corporate authors

Reference list

Ministry of Health. (2008). Future directions for eating disorders services in New Zealand.

Te Tāhuhu o Te Mātauranga–Ministry of Education & New Zealand Teachers Council–Te Pouherenga Kaiako o Aotearoa. (2011). Tātaiako: Cultural competencies for teachers of Māori learners. Ministry of Education. https://teachingcouncil.nz/required/Tataiako.pdf

  • When the publisher and the author are identical, omit the publisher.
  • For organisation names that include both English and Māori names:
    • include both names separated by an en dash (–)
    • the order of the names follows that appearing on the source document or work
    • this guidance is provided by the APA Style Experts (personal communication, February 25, 2020).


In-text citation

(Te Tāhuhu o Te Mātauranga–Ministry of Education & New Zealand Teachers Council–Te Pouherenga Kaiako o Aotearoa, 2011) OR According to Te Tāhuhu o Te Mātauranga–Ministry of Education and New Zealand Teachers Council–Te Pouherenga Kaiako o Aotearoa (2011)

(Ministry of Health, 2008) OR According to the Ministry of Health (2008)

  • Corporate authors can be abbreviated provided the abbreviation is well-known, will help avoid cumbersome repetition or will appear at least three times in the paper.
    • If you use abbreviations, indicate the abbreviation in the first in-text citation, for example
      First citation: (Ministry of Health [MOH], 2006) OR According to the Ministry of Health (MOH, 2006)
      Subsequent citations: (MOH, 2006).
    • After you define an abbreviation, use only the abbreviation; do not alternate between spelling out the term and abbreviating it. Use the abbreviation every time thereafter, even at the beginning of a sentence or paragraph or within headings.
  • If the name is short or the abbreviation would not be easily understood, type out the name each time it occurs.
  • See more on the APA Style website: Group Author Abbreviations
  • See also Format of Group Author Names on the APA Style website, which explains how to identify the authors of a report and how to handle organisation names that have layers of hierarchy.

Editor as author

Reference list

Scott, C. R., & Lewis, L. (Eds.). (2017). The international encyclopedia of organizational communication. John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118955567

In-text citation

Many articles in Scott and Lewis (2017) ... OR Research indicates ... (Scott & Lewis, 2017)