Mechanical Engineering

Project Number: 2019-2

Project Leader: James Atlas, Debbie Munro

Host Department: Computer Science and Software Engineering

Project Title: Protocol Development for Bone Fracture Healing Model

Project outline: Looking for a student to develop and implement a protocol to test a mathematical model for a microelectronic strain sensor for biomechanics. Currently the device has been tested in a controlled environment for monitoring fracture healing processes in bone. An initial mathematical model using deep learning convolutional neural networks (CNN) has been developed to predict fracture healing progress. The initial model currently relies on a protocol with precise control over physical moments. The long term goal of the project includes real-time analysis in embedded live animal and human subjects where such precise control is not possible.

I am looking for a student to assist with development of a new test protocol, construct and run experiments, and transform data into a bending moment agnostic representation. Depending on timing and quality of the representation there is potential to retrain and modify the CNN to predict from less controlled environments.

Specific Requirements: Python programming is a requirement (COSC121 or equivalent). A course in statistics (STAT101 or equivalent) is preferred. Knowledge or background in physics, biomechanics, biology, scientific research methods, and machine learning would be a better fit as more could be accomplished during the 10 weeks.

 

 

Project Number: 2019-5

Project Leader: Deborah Munro

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Biomedical Sensor Systems for Measuring Bone Fracture Healing--MEMS Sensor Fabrication Focus

Project outline: I am developing a wireless, battery-free implantable sensor for measuring the progress of bone healing. The sensor is a MEMS-fabricated interdigitated capacitive sensor that is encased in a waterproof housing and adhered to an implanted fracture plate or spinal implant. The goal is to get data much sooner about healing so that patients can return to normal activities sooner or clinicians can do interventions sooner if something is wrong. There are two positions available, one to do housing design and testing and the other to fabricate MEMS sensors.

I have established access with UC’s Electrical and Electronics Engineering Nanofabrication Laboratory, and I will begin microfabricating sensors for my application. You would be trained to use all the equipment in the laboratory and conduct testing, design electronic circuits (in collaboration with my partners at the Auckland Bioengineering Institute), and develop a sensor system for implanting in sheep in a pilot and full-scale animal study at Lincoln University.

https://www.canterbury.ac.nz/engineering/schools/mechanical/research/munro/mems-sensors/

Specific Requirements: Suitable for a mechanical, mechatronics, or electrical engineering student with an interest in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and working in a cleanroom environment.

 

 

Project Number: 2019-6

Project Leader: Deborah Munro

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Biomedical Sensor Systems for Measuring Bone Fracture Healing--Material Testing Focus

Project outline: I am developing a wireless, battery-free implantable sensor for measuring the progress of bone healing. The sensor is a MEMS-fabricated interdigitated capacitive sensor that is encased in a waterproof housing and adhered to an implanted fracture plate or spinal implant. The goal is to get data much sooner about healing so that patients can return to normal activities sooner or clinicians can do interventions sooner if something is wrong. There are two positions available, one to do housing design and testing and the other to fabricate MEMS sensors.

https://www.canterbury.ac.nz/engineering/schools/mechanical/research/munro/orthopaedic-medical-devices/

Specific Requirements: This project is suitable for mechanical, mechatronics, and electrical engineering students with an interest in hands-on research and material testing.

 

 

Project Number: 2019-42

Project Leader: Giuseppe Loporcaro (supervisor), Milo Kral (co-supervisor)

Host Department: Mechanical engineering

Project Title: Development to the portable Vickers Hardness tester for earthquake damage detection

Project outline: Quantifying the plastic deformation and residual strain capacity to fracture of steel reinforcing bars after earthquakes are essential to estimate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) structure after subsequent earthquakes. A methodology based on the Vickers hardness of metals has been developed at the University of Canterbury. Although this methodology has been proven successful it has a major limitation: Vickers hardness tests cannot be conducted 'in-situ'. Reinforcing bars need to be extracted from RC buildings and tested in the laboratory.

A prototype portable Vickers hardness that allows for hardness testing in situ has been constructed. However, it requires further development to verify its reliability. In this project, first, you will be testing the current prototype, comparing the measurements against a benchtop Vickers hardness tester. Also, further development to the Vickers tester is still required: a portable milling machine design needs to be completed (an initial concept has been already developed). In parallel with these activities, low-cycle fatigue tests may need to be conducted on steel reinforcing bars.

 Specific Requirements: Final year mechanical engineering student

 

 

Project Number: 2019-49

Project Leader: Debbie Munro

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Sensor for Tracking Number of Sterilisations for Medical Device

Project outline: We are developing a sensor medical device to count how many times a device is sterilised. This is an ongoing research effort between Dr Munro and Enztec. Student will help develop design solution and conduct testing on campus in the autoclave (heat steam) sterilisation facility. This project is suitable for mechanical, electrical, or mechatronics engineering student.

Specific Requirements: Student should have a willingness to learn basic microcontroller, sensor, and data capturing skills, including RFID.

 

 

Project Number: 2019-72

Project Leader: Yilei Zhang

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Biomimetic Hand for Medical Research

Project outline: Background:

Hands are essential for people to do everyday tasks and when a person loses the functionality of their hands, this can be both mentally traumatic and physically restrictive. While much research has gone into the production of prosthetic hands which allow amputees to regain some of their physical skills, little has gone into the design and production of hands which are biomimetic. An ideal biomimetic hand would be capable of replicating every motion performed by a real, unimpaired hand.

Description:

This project involves the design and construction of a mechatronic biomimetic hand for use in the study of impairments of the human hand. A functioning model could be controlled by a person with impaired movements of their hands, aiding medical research into their condition. In this project, an existing opensource 3D-printed hand will be modified to allow for a full range of movement and fine control. The existing joints will be redesigned to allow for the abduction and adduction of the fingers, and the rotation of the wrist. High torque servos will be used to provide actuation of the fingers and hand, controlled using an Arduino microcontroller with input from ECG sensors and motion capture data. These sensors would be attached to a wearable glove, allowing the biomimetic hand to mimic motions and gestures in real time. New software code would need to be written in C to allow for this capability. For research purposes, the range of motion of one person would be recorded and set as the range of motion for the hand. This would allow a second person to explore their limitations of motion at a different time or while in a separate location. This project would involve embedded systems programming and CAD design for 3D-printing.

Specific Requirements: the student should be familiar with both hardware and software development

 

 

Project Number: 2019-74

Project Leader: Yilei Zhang

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Opensource IoT capable bioprinter for 3D printing multi-cell-types

Project outline: Organ shortage is an ever-increasing problem that is facing our society. Number one cause of death in the world is due to heart diseases, these problems can be overcome by applying existing technologies from other fields such as additive manufacturing (AM). One of the technologies that apply to regenerative medicine is bioprinting. This research project aims to build an opensource IoT capable bioprinter that is capable of printing multiple biomaterials.

The research aims to investigate the possibility of printing multiple different types of cells for in vitro 3D organs, such as in vitro Alzheimer's Disease brain model. In this project, an existing FDM 3D printer will be modified to accommodate for extrusion-based bioprinting. The existing extruder will need to be modified to print cell-laden hydrogels with stepper motor driven syringes. A new controller board will need to be designed to allow for multi-material printing and IoT capabilities. Both the printer's firmware and splicing software will also need to be modified. Embedded systems, power electronics and low-level system programming are used extensively to implement these features.

Specific Requirements: The student should be familiar with hardware and software development

 

 

Project Number: 2019-84

Project Leader: Stefanie Gutschmidt, Geoff Chase

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Point-of-Care Insulin Sensor Design

Project outline: Blood sugar control with insulin in diabetes is difficult and risky. Real-time, point-of-care (PoC)

insulin measurement, would significantly reduce risk and adverse outcomes, which currently cost

US$500M/year in direct costs alone (NZ$10M/year in NZ). However, there is no PoC insulin measurement

technology, and current insulin tests require 1-3 days using expensive lab equipment.

The research project is doing modeling and design to develop a unique micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) device

incorporating micro-fluidics, bio-active agents, and an array of electrostatic actuated MEMS beams to

sense the insulin concentration from a real-time, PoC sample of blood or interstitial fluid. Array members coated with insulin-selective bio-active receptors attach insulin, leaving other elements. Insulin concentration could then be measured actively controlling an electrostatic field between the bottom of the array member and a base electrode to evaluate the static deflection and dynamic frequency of array members, which is proportional to insulin concentration in the (known) sample volume. The array enables multiple measurements for greater accuracy.

What we need to do is a range of MEMS device modeling for static and vibration analysis to optimise the design.

The Summer Scholarship project offers a variety of exciting smaller challenges and open questions directly related to the larger research project in the following areas:

1) Vibraiton modeling and analysis of MEMS devices

2) Sensor dynamics: analytical, computational and experimental

Desired skills include:

- curiosity and natural enjoyment of finding things out

- basic CAD modelling skills, hands-on

- vibrations and basic controls knowledge

- basic experimental skills (possibly)

Specific Requirements: We are seeking a 2nd or 3rd Pro Engineering student interested in dynamics and vibration, likely from Mechanical or Mechatroncis engineering, who is not afraid of Matlab!

 

 

 

Project Number: 2019-85

Project Leader: Stefanie Gutschmidt, Michael Coe

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Artificial Spine Articulation and Actuation

Project outline: The spine of many animal species is able to articulate between vertebrae. In general, a spine consists of many vertebrae between intervertebral disks. These intervertebral disks have a jelly-like fluid inside a flexible membrane. Muscles are used to flex the spine in different directions and positions while ligaments hold the spine in place. We are currently engaged in the design and actuation of a robotic fish spine. Current actuation methods for robotic fish utilise air, DC motors, shape memory alloys, ionic-polymer metal composites, and all manner of other actuation methods. A limitation with current designs are that the degrees of freedom are limited by the actuation method. We would like to fabricate a several degree of freedom spinal column that is capable of multiple swimming gaits.

The project is to design and fabricate a multiple degree of freedom spinal column for a robotic fish. Each vertebrae will need to be actuated by a yet to be determined method. The current working theory for this revolves around using magnetic coils to create a magnetic hinge in which each hinge point can be actuated independently. This would being each vertebral disk closer or farther apart depending on polarity. The project will also include the fabrications of structures that are composites of hard materials and soft materials. In this case, 3D printed polylactic acid and soft silicone rubber. The final design will be validated using finite element method software and experiments.

 

Specific Requirements: - fundamental computational, analytical and experimental skills

- 3D printing fabrication, CAD modelling, hands-on

- curiosity and enjoyment to finding things out

 

 

Project Number: 2019-92

Project Leader: Chris Pretty, Brett Robinson and Mark Jermy

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Autonomous weeding robot for land reclamation plantations: Navigation and control systems

Project outline: Weed removal is a time and labour intensive task in many agricultural and horticultural operations. This project will develop, from scratch, a design for an autonomous weeding system, with a view to applications in NZ sectors including land reclamation planting (e.g. replanting ex-forestry land with natives), orchard and other commercial growing operations. The system will cut weeds to a set height, along predefined tracks in the growing area. This project is co-funded by the UC Kia Topu initiative and One Billion Trees.

The selected student will be part of a team of two working over the summer and supervised by Dr Chris Pretty, Prof Mark Jermy (Mechanical Engineering) and Prof. Brett Robinson (College of Science).

Project steps over the summer will include:

A brief review of automated weeding systems in operation worldwide

Compiling the Specification and Requirements

Concept generation for the navigation system including RF pathway signals from ground cables, GPS, RTK, tactile and visual sensors

Concept evaluation and selection

Sourcing parts and building proof of concept subsystems

If time permits, building a complete prototype

This project is suitable for a Mechatronics student.

Specific Requirements: Mechatronics

 

 

 

Project Number: 2019-93

Project Leader: Chris Pretty, Brett Robinson, Mark Jermy

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Autonomous weeding robot for land reclamation plantations: Traction, safety and cutting systems

Project outline: Weed removal is a time and labour intensive task in many agricultural and horticultural operations. This project will develop, from scratch, a design for an autonomous weeding system, with a view to applications in NZ sectors including land reclamation planting (e.g. replanting ex-forestry land with natives), orchard and other commercial growing operations. The system will cut weeds to a set height, along predefined tracks in the growing area. This project is co-funded by the UC Kia Topu initiative and One Billion Trees.

The selected student will be part of a team of two working over the summer and supervised by Dr Chris Pretty, Prof Mark Jermy (Mechanical Engineering) and Prof. Brett Robinson (College of Science).

Project steps over the summer will include:

A brief review of automated weeding systems in operation worldwide

Compiling the Specification and Requirements

Concept generation for the traction system: e.g. tracks/wheels, suspension systems

Specifications for the traction system e.g. torque and power levels, battery capacity

Concept generation for the weed removal tool e.g. rigid blade, cable blade

Concept generation for safety systems: barriers, interlocks and sensors to keep humans working alongside the system safe

Concept evaluation and selection

Sourcing parts and building proof of concept subsystems

If time permits, building a complete prototype

This project is suitable for a Mechatronics or Mechanical Engineering student (scope will be adjusted to fit the skills of the candidate: if a Mechatronics student is selected, control system tasks will be included and the mechanical design tasks will be shared with another colleague).

Specific Requirements: Mechatronics or Mechanical Engineering

 

 

Project Number: 2019-94

Project Leader: Geoff Chase and Chris Pretty

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Non-invasive Blood Glucose Sensor

Project outline: Blood glucose sensing is “a pain in the fingers” and emerging continuous, implanted glucose sensors are extremely high cost at $2700-4000 per year. Compared to the median household income of $65000, this cost is far too high. We are designing a novel, non-invasive light-based sensor that could be put in a Fitbit or similar and hope to prototype and test our second generation device this summer This is an opportunity to create a novel device design that could save $2-3M per year to NZ families.

The specific project focuses on any or all of (depending on student interest):

* Device electronics design and testing

* Device software implementation

* Prototype device testing and experimental data analysis – are we good enough??

This is an opportunity to apply mechatronics skills to medical technology and helping people. The successful applicant will be working within an existing, highly supportive research group and will gain experience in applied sensor technology, electrical hardware design, and biomedical engineering experiments to what ever level suits student interest.

 Specific Requirements: A student who has completed 2nd or 3rd pro mechatronics engineering, electrical engineering, or mechanical engineering. The student will need to have an interest in applied biomedical engineering, signal processing, and control systems.

 

 

Project Number: 2019-95

Project Leader: Geoff Chase and Chris Pretty

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Ultra low-cost insulin pump

Project outline: Insulin pumps cost $8000-10000 and last 3-4 years, where Pharmac *may* cover half the cost. Compared to the median household income of $65000, this cost is far too high. We are designing a second generation ultra low cost insulin pump, and testing prototypes in the lab for accuracy and life cycle. This is an opportunity to create a novel device design that could save $5M per year to NZ families.

The specific project focuses on any or all of (depending on student interest):

* Device electronics design and testing

* Device software / firmware implementation

* Prototype device testing

This is an opportunity to apply mechatronics skills to medical technology and helping people. The successful applicant will be working within an existing, highly supportive research group and will gain experience in applied control systems, electrical hardware design, and biomedical engineering experiments.

Specific Requirements: A student who has completed 2nd or 3rd pro mechatronics engineering, electrical engineering, or mechanical engineering. The student will need to have an interest in applied biomedical engineering, signal processing, and control systems.

 

 

Project Number: 2019-96

Project Leader: Chris Pretty

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Hybrid control of exoskeleton for physical rehabilitation

Project outline: Stroke is a leading cause of complex disability. Physical rehabilitation can improve outcomes, but currently requires one-one sessions with physiotherapists, which contribute to the high cost of treatment. We are developing a hybrid exoskeleton to improve rehabilitation and enable at-home rehab sessions.

This summer research project focuses on the development and testing of a control system for a hybrid exoskeleton in which the muscles are actuated by functional electrical stimulation, in parallel with a motor that assists the muscle. The successful applicant will be working within an existing research group and will gain experience in applied control systems, electrical hardware design, and biomedical engineering experiments.

Specific Requirements: A student who has completed 2nd or 3rd pro mechatronics engineering, electrical engineering, or mechanical engineering. The student will need to have an interest in applied biomedical engineering, signal processing, and control systems.

 

 

Project Number: 2019-97

Project Leader: Chris Pretty

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: EMG-based control of exoskeleton for physical rehabilitation

Project outline: Stroke is a leading cause of complex disability. Physical rehabilitation can improve outcomes, but currently requires one-one sessions with physiotherapists, which contribute to the high cost of treatment. We are developing a hybrid exoskeleton to improve rehabilitation and enable at-home rehab sessions.

This summer research project focuses on the collection and processing of electromyography (EMG) signals used to control the exoskeleton, as well as monitoring of fatigue levels during rehabilitation. The successful applicant will be working within an existing research group and will gain experience in the collection and processing of biosignals from experiments, as well as applied control systems and hardware design.

Specific Requirements: A student who has completed 2nd or 3rd pro mechatronics engineering, electrical engineering, or mechanical engineering. The student will need to have an interest in applied biomedical engineering, signal processing, and control systems.

 

 

Project Number: 2019-122

Project Leader: Stefanie Gutschmidt

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Sound Detection Technology (Experimental Investigations)

Project outline: Current sound detection devices such as microphones, hearing aids or cochlea implants rely on linear vibration concepts with inherent limits and trade-offs when it comes to performance measures. Some of the human hearing properties, once damaged, cannot even be artificially re-produced with existing devices.

Our novel sound detection concept is based on nonlinear vibration effects of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) which amplifies small acoustic signals in an extraordinary way and likewise compresses very large signals. This special amplification concept is frequency selective and therefore offers a pathway of naturally filtering any superposed (background) noise.

The project is about performing experiments with an existing test rig to investigate this nonlinear concept for multiple frequencies and the application of future sound-detection devices.

Specific Requirements: Skills in the following areas are required:

- dynamic modelling & analysis

- fundamental skills in nonlinear vibrations

- fundamental experimental skills

 

 

Project Number: 2019-111

Project Leader: Dr Jenny Clarke and Dr Debbie Munro

Host Department: School of Health Sciences

Project Title: Biomechanics resources for scaffolded learning with the BTS 3D motion capture system

Project outline: The student will use the BTS Smart 3D motion capture system to prepare teaching resources for SPCO304 Biomechanical Analysis classes and training for incoming Masters students.

The project requires the student to capture several performances of a simple walk-through of a capture volume as well as an athlete performing a back squat with good technique and a forward lunge using the BTS Smart 3D motion capture system. The performances will be reconstructed having applied a simple anatomical model, and a basic protocol for analysis will be created.

All actions and marker placements will be fully documented to provide a walkthrough tutorial for final-year undergraduate biomechanics students to be able to follow the simple analysis pathway, and to extend their learning to further performances, e.g. kick, or further gym strength movements. The tutorial will also be presented by the lecturer to second-year undergraduate students in the SPCO204 Biomechanics course, and in the new Biomedical Engineering minor.

Artefacts produced by the summer scholarship student:

- Step by step procedures to apply markers to the athlete, optimise and test camera placement, set up and calibrate system (most of this exists in lab manual already but needs updating and pictures to help the user), and capture data

- High quality raw and processed data from captures (it will be useful to have some raw data unprocessed which can be copied into files for students to practise with)

- Analysis protocol for simple analyses of motion - velocities, joint angles, left-right balance assessment, lateral and anterioposterior tilt for three common movements (simple gait, back squat, forward lunge)

A student with previous experience using the system will be able to complete this project in the 400 hours allocated and produce high quality teaching and demonstration resources. If the project basics are finished early, the student will be supported, and will liaise also with BTS support based in Italy, to extend the analyses to more sophisticated protocols which are to be fully documented.

Specific Requirements: Student will have completed SPCO204 Biomechanics and SPCO304 Applied Biomechanics, the latter with a minimum B grade.

 

 

 

Project Number: 2019-124

Project Leader: Stefanie Gutschmidt

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Sound Detection Technology (Theoretical Investigations)

Project outline: Current sound detection devices such as microphones, hearing aids or cochlea implants rely on linear vibration concepts with inherent limits and trade-offs when it comes to performance measures. Some of the human hearing properties, once damaged, cannot even be artificially re-produced with existing devices.

Our novel sound detection concept is based on nonlinear vibration effects of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) which amplifies small acoustic signals in an extraordinary way and likewise compresses very large signals. This special amplification concept is frequency selective and therefore offers a pathway of naturally filtering any superposed (background) noise.

The project is about studying this nonlinear concept for multiple frequencies and the application of future sound-detection devices.

Specific Requirements: Skills in the following areas are required:

- dynamic modelling & analysis

- fundamental skills in nonlinear vibrations

- fundamental knowledge in vibration controls

 

 

 

Project Number: 2019-126

Project Leader: Prof. Mark Jermy, Dr Scott Post

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Wireless Spray Deposition Sensors for vineyard operations: development and field testing

Project outline: A current UC-Lincoln Agritech joint project has developed prototype spray deposition sensors to monitor agricultural pesticide spraying. These will replace labour-intensive, non-reusable water-sensitive papers as the primary tool to ensure vineyard sprayers are correctly targeted so that the chemicals adequately cover the target plants to prevent loss to diseases. The current sensors have only been tested in a laboratory environment, and now there is the need to ensure the sensors can function as a practical tool for vineyard and orchard operations.

The new sensors measure the capacitance change of a surface with interdigitated electrodes, and send the signals over a short range wireless network to a hub.

The project will involve some modifications to the sensor, readout circuit, wireless system and user interface, and would suit a Mechatronics student.

The questions to be answered include:

  • Can the output signal of the wireless sensors be correlated with the existing standard of water-sensitive papers, which can be scanned to provide quantitative measurements of fraction of surface area covered and uniformity of coverage?
  • Does the output signal of the wireless sensors also correlate with the mass deposited (dosage of chemical applied)?
  • Do the sensors capture impinging spray drops with a capture efficiency comparable to grape leaves and bunches in a vineyard? This will be assessed using high-speed video and/or tracer dyes.
  • Does this build-up of spray residues on the sensor surface over time in practical operations? If so, can a protocol be developed for regular cleaning of the sensor surfaces?
  • Is there any effect of environmental factors such as sunlight, wind, and ambient humidity on the sensor readings?

The student will split time between the University of Canterbury and Lincoln Agritech for laboratory work on the spray sensors and data analysis, with field trials conducted at the Lincoln University vineyard and at a commercial vineyard in the Waipara region.

Specific Requirements: Mechatronics

 

 

 

Project Number: 2019-137

Project Leader: Professor Nick Draper, Professor Keith Alexander, Dr Natalia Kabaliuk

Host Department: Mechanical Engineering

Project Title: Concussive and sub-concussive events in rugby: Incidence, impact assessment and mitigation for junior female and male players

Project outline: Rugby is a very popular contact sport played throughout New Zealand, with participant numbers in rugby sub-unions such as Ellesmere still seeing increases, particularly for female players. The physical contact inherent in rugby increases the risk of a child being exposed to traumatic brain injury (TBI) through the collisions that occur. The impact of TBI in children and adolescents represents a major health issue. Given the complexity of the interaction between brain injury and development, understanding and mitigating the health impacts of childhood TBI is critical. Children may fail to acquire new skills at the same rate as their peers, and can face long-term developmental, health and quality of life difficulties extending into adulthood. Even a single mild TBI may disrupt the neurological mechanisms underlying ongoing development. Furthermore, the risk of sustaining a repeat injury while recovering from a prior mild TBI (second impact syndrome) is higher for children and adolescents.

Two important New Zealand studies have shown that rates of TBI among children and adolescents are higher than expected. A New Zealand population-based study including all TBI severities found older children (5-14 years) had an incidence rate of 818 (709-928) per 100,000 person- years (95% CI). A longitudinal study based in Canterbury has shown that rates of child and youth TBI in their Christchurch cohort were also higher than previously reported and contact sport-related concussions were one of the leading injury causes among 15-25 year olds. Additionally, there is evidence to suggest that outcomes are poorer for female players who are also at a higher risk of mild TBI.

In spite of the acknowledged high incident rates of TBI among children and adolescents important gaps remain evident, in particular, with respect to understanding and mitigating impacts of TBI in sport.

The objective of this Summer Scholarship project is to examine possible mitigation of sub-concussive and concussive events through the use of smart materials in a new protective headgear design. The successful scholarship student will:

1. Review previous work by final year project students and learn the headgear testing method using our purpose built test rig.

2. Confirm test results from our previous research.

3. Examine the potential of different materials and combinations of materials to improve impact force mitigation.

Specific Requirements:

1. Background in mechanical engineering.

2. Passion for sports engineering, interest and experience of rugby an advantage.