CRJU302-23S2 (C) Semester Two 2023

Prisons and Corrections

30 points

Start Date: Monday, 17 July 2023
End Date: Sunday, 12 November 2023
Withdrawal Dates
Last Day to withdraw from this course:
  • Without financial penalty (full fee refund): Sunday, 30 July 2023
  • Without academic penalty (including no fee refund): Sunday, 1 October 2023


This course introduces students to the New Zealand correctional system and demonstrates how it has evolved since 1840. It then examines various aspects of the correctional system in detail.

Since the penitentiary became a mainstream correctional device two centuries ago, there has been a continuous search for something that 'works' in terms of reforming criminal offenders. The penitentiary system born in the United States in the early 19th century was soon copied by England and other European countries, and it was this system that New Zealand inherited when it became a Crown Colony in 1840.

In its correctional evolution, New Zealand has been primarily influenced by developments in England and the United States. In addition, it has been creative in finding directions of its own. This has resulted in many policy variations, each directed toward the objective of reducing crime.

This course weighs the complex factors that have driven New Zealand's correctional philosophy and practice since 1840. The numerous experiments are evaluated and the difficulties they have encountered are explained. For more than 180 years New Zealand has struggled, as have other countries, to find a formula for dealing with criminals in a humane, workable and effective way. For the most part, the quest has failed. Deterrent, retributive, reformative, custodial, and community programs have all had their day and not one, so far, has proven significantly better than any other in the general treatment of criminality. Irrespective of correctional policies and the great energy that has frequently gone into them, reoffending rates remain quite uniform. Prisons and Corrections examines this international problem and suggests why the reformation of criminals is so difficult.

The course is divided into two parts. In the first, we look at the evolution of the correctional system as a whole, up to the current day. In the second we look in detail at various aspects of corrections and see how they have changed and why, as well as discussing various contemporary issues and challenges faced by the correctional system.

Learning Outcomes

  • By the end of this course student will:
  • Have an in-depth knowledge of the history and development of the New Zealand correctional system.
  • Understand aspects of the management of corrections.
  • Understand and be able to think critically about present day issues and challenges in the New Zealand correctional system.
  • Increased competency in the areas of critical thinking, comprehension, and academic writing skills specific to the study of criminal justice.
    • University Graduate Attributes

      This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attributes specified below:

      Critically competent in a core academic discipline of their award

      Students know and can critically evaluate and, where applicable, apply this knowledge to topics/issues within their majoring subject.

      Biculturally competent and confident

      Students will be aware of and understand the nature of biculturalism in Aotearoa New Zealand, and its relevance to their area of study and/or their degree.


(1)  Any 30 points at 200 level in SOCI or ANTH, or
(2)  Any 60 points at 200 level from the Schedule V of the BA, or
(3) i. CRJU201 and either ii.CRJU202 or LAWS202



Equivalent Courses


Timetable 2023

Students must attend one activity from each section.

Lecture A
Activity Day Time Location Weeks
01 Tuesday 12:00 - 14:00 Meremere 108 Lecture Theatre
17 Jul - 27 Aug
11 Sep - 22 Oct
Lecture B
Activity Day Time Location Weeks
01 Wednesday 11:00 - 13:00 A3 Lecture Theatre
17 Jul - 27 Aug
11 Sep - 22 Oct

Course Coordinator / Lecturer

Marozane Spamers


Assessment Due Date Percentage 
Exam 30%
Quizzes 10%
Essay 25 Aug 2023 30%
Assignment 20 Oct 2023 30%

Assessment is likely to consist of weekly quizzes, essays and a final examination.

The assessment will be confirmed in the first week of lectures.

Textbooks / Resources

Required Texts

G. Newbold; The Problem of Prisons: Corrections Reform in New Zealand since 1840 ; Dunmore, 2007.

Recommended Reading

G. Newbold; Crime, Law and Justice in New Zealand ; Routlege, 2016.

J. Gilbert, G. Newbold; Criminal Justice: a New Zealand introduction ; Auckland University Press, 2017.

Indicative Fees

Domestic fee $1,641.00

International fee $7,500.00

* All fees are inclusive of NZ GST or any equivalent overseas tax, and do not include any programme level discount or additional course-related expenses.

Minimum enrolments

This course will not be offered if fewer than 10 people apply to enrol.

For further information see Faculty of Law .

All CRJU302 Occurrences

  • CRJU302-23S2 (C) Semester Two 2023