UC SPARK - University of Canterbury - New Zealand

Professor Angus Ronald McIntosh

Biological Sciences

Fields of Research

  • Freshwater ecosystems, including streams, wetlands and lakes
  • Freshwater fish
  • Food web ecology
  • Predator-prey interactions
  • Restoration and rehabilitation
  • Invasions and non-native species
  • Conservation Biology
  • Freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem functions
  • Land-use influences on freshwater ecosystems
  • Cross-ecosystem connections between freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems
  • River flows, floods, drying, intermittency and flow-related disturbance

Researcher Summary

I work at all levels in freshwater ecosystems, ranging from population and community ecology through to ecosystem and aquatic landscape ecology, including work on fish and invertebrates in streams, lakes and wetlands.  I’ve been particularly interested in aquatic food webs, predator-prey interactions, the influences of flow-related habitat size and disturbance in rivers, exchanges between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and restoration and rehabilitation.  This has included long-running studies in the upper Waimakariri River system in Canterbury, at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory in Colorado and in agricultural streams of the Canterbury Plains.  Important aspects include investigations of:
- effects of non-native trout on galaxiid fishes,
- riverscape configuration influences on fish and other aquatic biodiversity,
- changes in river habitat size (e.g. through alteration in flows) on river food webs,
- habitat drying on pond communities,
- connections between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (cross-ecosystem influences)
-restoration of agricultural streams in the Canterbury Waterway Rehabilitation Experiment (CAREX).

See the FERG (Freshwater Ecology Research Group) pages for more details on this research and my EcologyLive website (see link under Resources above) for photographs, stories and information of interest to a wider audience.

Subject Area: Disciplines

Research Projects

Research Groups

Prizes and Awards

Displaying all items.
  • Teaching Award ( 2006 - 2017)
  • Member, Ako Aotearoa Academy of Tertiary Teaching Excellence ( 2008 - 2017)
  • Other
  • Fulbright Postdoctoral ( 1994 )
  • New Zealand Science and Technology Post-doctoral Fellowship ( 1995 - 1996)

Student Supervision

Displaying all items.
  • PhD - Burdon F: Impacts of sedimentation on the structure and functioning of agricultural stream communities (2013)
  • PhD - Campbell R: Spatial pattern and community assembly : does the configuration of stream networks influence their community structure? (2010)
  • PhD - Eikaas H: The effect of habitat fragmentation on New Zealand native fish : a GIS approach (2004)
  • PhD - Galatowitch M: Invertebrate Life-history Trade-offs and Dispersal Across a Pond-permanence Gradient (2014)
  • PhD - Graham S: Mechanisms and Mitigation of Food Web Change in Stream Ecosystems (2013)
  • PhD - Greenwood M: The population dynamics of a riparian spider : interactive effects of flow-related disturbance on cross-ecosystem subsidies and spider habitat (2007)
  • PhD - Greig H: Community assembly and food web interactions across pond permanence gradients (2008)
  • PhD - Howard S: Flow-related Threats to Rare Galaxiids in the Upper Waitaki River (2014)
  • PhD - Jellyman P: Disentangling the effects of disturbance and habitat size on stream community structure (2010)
  • PhD - Klemmer A: Unravelling the effects of multiple cross-ecosystem subsidies on food webs (2015)
  • PhD - O’Brien L: The conservation ecology of Canterbury mudfish (Neochanna burrowsius) (2005)
  • PhD - Warburton HJ: The role of body size in predator-prey interactions and community structure (2015)
  • PhD - White RSA: The influence of drought on Neochanna apoda metapopulation persistence under global warming and land-use change (2017)
  • PhD - Whitehead A: Tools for managing threatened species : improving the effectiveness of whio conservation (2008)
  • PhD - Woodford D: Riverscape-mediated effects of introduced trout on non-diadromous galaxiid fishes in New Zealand (2009)
  • Masters - Anthony M: Ecology of streams contaminated by acid mine drainage, near Reefton, South Island (1999)
  • Masters - Bell C: The ecology of Koaro (Galaxias brevipinnis) in Manson Creek, North Canterbury (2001)
  • Masters - Bonnett M: Critical habitat features of giant kokopu, Galaxias argenteus (Gmelin 1789) (2000)
  • Masters - Brown L: The effects of the Cobb River hydroelectric power scheme on downstream macroinvertebrate communities (1998)
  • Masters - Burdon F: The effects of stream productivity on aquatic-terrestrial linkages (2004)
  • Masters - Burrell T: Trophic State in Canterbury waterways (2011)
  • Masters - Cope N: Life histories and ecological interactions of Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Physa acuta in relation to temperature (1999)
  • Masters - Cottham D: 1999-Masters Thesis-Cottham, Darren (2000)
  • Masters - Dewdney M: The effect of pastoral clearings and a return to forest on two West Coast rivers (2000)
  • Masters - Digby B: Invertebrate production within various habitats of a braided river (2001)
  • Masters - Doehring K: Urbanisation influences on freshwater fish distribution and remediation of migratory barriers (2009)
  • Masters - Drinnan K: The effects of fish on the behavioural drift of stream invertebrates (2000)
  • Masters - Drummond L: Influence of habitat drying on New Zealand stream macroinvertebrates (2011)
  • Masters - Dunn N: The effects of extremes in flow on alpine (Galaxias paucispondylus) and Canterbury (G. vulgaris) galaxias (2003)
  • Masters - Franklin H: Understanding variation in water qualiy using a riverscape perspective (2010)
  • Masters - Goodman J: 2000-Masters Thesis-Goodman, Jane (2002)
  • Masters - Gray D: Braided river springs : distribution, benthic ecology and role in the landscape (2005)
  • Masters - Harbrow M: Ecology of streams affected by acid mine drainage near Westport, South Island, New Zealand (2000)
  • Masters - Howard S: 2005-Masters Thesis-Howard, Simon (2007)
  • Masters - Lavender R: A seasonal comparison of benthic communities, food webs and physico-chemical conditions in forested streams and wetlands in the Okarito Forest, Westland (2001)
  • Masters - McMurtrie S: Interactive effects of disturbance, food supply and predators on Zelandopsyche ingens (Trichoptera) (1999)
  • Masters - McNabb R: Factors controlling the distribution and abundance of a filter-feeding mayfly, Coloburiscus humeralis, in New Zealand streams (2002)
  • Masters - Morris P: Genetic population structure of four taxa of aquatic insect at three hierarchical spatial scales (2005)
  • Masters - Roberts K: Factors limiting invertebrate recovery during stream restoration (2012)
  • Masters - Sinton A: The ecology of freshwater communities of stock water races on the Canterbury Plains (2008)
  • Masters - Taylor R: Benthic ecology of glacial rivers in South Westland with particular reference to the Chironomidae (2002)
  • Masters - White R: Powerful fish in poor environments: Energetic trade-offs drive distributionand abundance in an extremophile forest-dwelling fish (2013)
  • Masters - Wood C: An assessment of trampling impact on alpine vegetation, Fiordland and Mount Aspiring national parks, New Zealand (2005)
  • Masters - Wright-Stow A: Biomonitoring, and the macroinvertebrate faunas of Canterbury streams (2001)
  • Honours - Boddy N: Interacting global change drivers limit the distribution of a thermally-sensitive freshwater fish (2013)
  • Honours - Ewers R: The influence of honeydew density and wasps on the arthropod community in a New Zealand beech forest (1999)
  • Honours - Greenwood M: The influence of abiotic stream conditions on life history traits of Deleatidium mayflies (2002)
  • Honours - Greig H: 2003-Honours-Greig, Hamish (2003)
  • Honours - Jellyman P: 2004-Honours-Jellyman, Phillip (2004)
  • Honours - Warburton H: 2006-Honours-Warburton, Helen (2006)

Research/Scholarly/Creative Works

Journal Articles
  • Boddy NC. and McIntosh AR. (2017) Temperature, invaders and patchy habitat interact to limit the distribution of a vulnerable freshwater fish. Australian Journal of Ecology 42(4): 456-467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aec.12463.
  • Campbell RE. and McIntosh AR. (2017) Space–time interactions and invertebrate assemblage change in stream networks. Australian Journal of Ecology 42(2): 227-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aec.12425.
  • Hunt SK., Galatowitsch ML. and McIntosh AR. (2017) Interactive effects of land use, temperature, and predators determine native and invasive mosquito distributions. Freshwater Biology http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fwb.12967.
  • White RSA., Wintle BA., McHugh PA., Booker DJ. and McIntosh AR. (2017) The scaling of population persistence with carrying capacity does not asymptote in populations of a fish experiencing extreme climate variability.. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing papers of a Biological character. Royal Society (Great Britain) 284(1856): 20170826-20170826. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.0826.
  • Galatowitsch ML. and McIntosh AR. (2016) Developmental constraints control generalist invertebrate distributions across a gradient of unpredictable disturbance. Freshwater Science 35(4): 1300-1311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/688959.
  • Galatowitsch ML. and McIntosh AR. (2016) Trait flexibility of generalist invertebrates exposed to contrasting predation and drying stressors. Freshwater Biology 61(6): 862-875. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fwb.12747.
  • Goeller BC., Febria CM., Harding JS. and McIntosh AR. (2016) Thinking beyond the Bioreactor Box: Incorporating Stream Ecology into Edge-of-Field Nitrate Management. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(3): 866-872. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2015.06.0325.
  • White RSA., McHugh PA. and McIntosh AR. (2016) Drought-survival is a threshold function of habitat size and population density in a fish metapopulation. Global Change Biology 22(10): 3341-3348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13265.
  • Campbell RE., Winterbourn MJ., Cochrane TA. and McIntosh AR. (2015) Flow-related disturbance creates a gradient of metacommunity types within stream networks. Landscape Ecology 30(4): 667-680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10980-015-0164-x.
  • Drummond LR., McIntosh AR. and Larned ST. (2015) Invertebrate community dynamics and insect emergence in response to pool drying in a temporary river. Freshwater Biology 60(8): 1596-1612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fwb.12591.
  • Graham SE., O'Brien JM., Burrell TK. and McIntosh AR. (2015) Aquatic macrophytes alter productivity-richness relationships in eutrophic stream food webs. Ecosphere 6(6) Article 89 http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES14-00341.1.
  • McHugh PA., Thompson RM., Greig HS., Warburton HJ. and McIntosh AR. (2015) Habitat size influences food web structure in drying streams. Ecography 38(7): 700-712. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecog.01193.
  • Peckarsky BL., McIntosh AR., Àlvarez M. and Moslemi JM. (2015) Disturbance legacies and nutrient limitation influence interactions between grazers and algae in high elevation streams. Ecosphere 6(11): 15pp. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES15-00236.1.
  • White RSA., McHugh PA., Glover CN. and McIntosh AR. (2015) Multiple environmental stressors increase the realised niche breadth of a forest-dwelling fish. Ecography 38(2): 154-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecog.00526.
  • White RSA., Mchugh PA., Glover CN. and Mcintosh AR. (2015) Trap-shyness subsidence is a threshold function of mark-recapture interval in brown mudfish Neochanna apoda populations. Journal of Fish Biology 87(4): 967-980. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12770.
  • Burrell TK., O'Brien JM., Graham SE., Simon KS., Harding JS. and McIntosh AR. (2014) Riparian shading mitigates stream eutrophication in agricultural catchments. Freshwater Science 33(1): 73-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/674180.
  • Jellyman PG., McHugh PA. and McIntosh AR. (2014) Increases in disturbance and reductions in habitat size interact to suppress predator body size. Global Change Biology 20(5): 1550-1558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12441.
  • O'Brien JM., Lessard JL., Plew D., Graham SE. and McIntosh AR. (2014) Aquatic macrophytes alter metabolism and nutrient cycling in lowland streams. Ecosystems 17: 405-417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-013-9730-8.
  • Peckarsky BL., McIntosh AR., Horn SC., McHugh K., Booker DJ., Wilcox AC., Brown W. and Alvarez M. (2014) Characterizing disturbance regimes of mountain streams. Freshwater Science 33(3): 716-730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/677215.
  • Budy P., Thiede GP., Lobón-Cerviá J., Gonzalez Fernandez G., McHugh P., McIntosh AR., Asbjørn Vøllestad L., Becares E. and Jellyman P. (2013) Limitation and facilitation of one of the world's most invasive fish: an intercontinental comparison. Ecology 94(2): 356-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-0628.1.
  • Burdon FJ., McIntosh AR. and Harding JS. (2013) Habitat loss drives threshold response of benthic invertebrate communities to deposited sediment in agricultural streams. Ecological Applications 23(5): 1036-1047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-1190.1.
  • Campbell RE. and McIntosh AR. (2013) Do isolation and local habitat jointly limit the structure of stream invertebrate assemblages? Freshwater Biology 58(1): 128-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fwb.12045.
  • Greig HS., Wissinger SA. and McIntosh AR. (2013) Top-down control of prey increases with drying disturbance in ponds: a consequence of non-consumptive interactions? Journal of Animal Ecology 82(3): 598-607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12042.
  • Jellyman PG., Booker DJ. and McIntosh AR. (2013) Quantifying the direct and indirect effects of flow-related disturbance on stream fish assemblages. Freshwater Biology 58(12): 2614-2631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fwb.12238.
  • Peckarsky BL., McIntosh AR., Álvarez M. and Moslemi JM. (2013) Nutrient limitation controls the strength of behavioral trophic cascades in high elevation streams. Ecosphere 4(9) Article 110 http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES13.00084.1.
  • Doehring K., Young RG. and McIntosh AR. (2012) Facilitation of upstream passage for juveniles of a weakly swimming migratory galaxiid. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 46(3): 303-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00288330.2011.639787.
  • McHugh PA., McIntosh AR., Howard S. and Budy P. (2012) Niche flexibility and trout-galaxiid co-occurrence in a hydrologically diverse riverine landscape. Biological Invasions 14(11): 2393-2406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-012-0237-6.
  • Doehring K., Young RG. and McIntosh AR. (2011) Factors affecting juvenile galaxiid fish passage at culverts. Marine and Freshwater Research 62(1): 38-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF10101.
  • Greenwood MJ., Harding JS., Niyogi DK. and McIntosh AR. (2011) Improving the effectiveness of riparian management for aquatic invertebrates in a degraded agricultural landscape: stream size and land-use legacies. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(1): 213-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02092.x.
  • Woodford DJ., Cochrane TA., McHugh PA. and McIntosh AR. (2011) Modelling spatial exclusion of a vulnerable native fish by introduced trout in rivers using landscape features: a new tool for conservation management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21(5): 484-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.1209.
  • Greenwood MJ., McIntosh AR. and Harding JS. (2010) Disturbance across an ecosystem boundary drives cannibalism propensity in a riparian consumer. Behavioral Ecology 21(6): 1227-1235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arq140.
  • McIntosh AR., McHugh PA., Dunn NR., Goodman JM., Howard SW., Jellyman PG., O'Brien LK., Nyström P. and Woodford DJ. (2010) The impact of trout on galaxiid fishes in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 34(1): 195-206.
  • Woodford DJ. and McIntosh AR. (2010) Evidence of source-sink metapopulations in a vulnerable native galaxiid fish driven by introduced trout. Ecological Applications 20(4): 967-977. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/08-1909.1.
  • Wissinger SA., Greig H. and McIntosh A. (2009) Absence of species replacements between permanent and temporary lentic communities in New Zealand. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28(1): 12-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1899/08-007.1.
  • Greenwood MJ. and McIntosh AR. (2008) Flooding impacts on responses of a riparian consumer to cross-ecosystem subsidies. Ecology 89(6): 1489-1496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/07-0749.1.
  • Greig HS. and McIntosh AR. (2008) Density reductions by predatory trout increase adult size and fecundity of surviving caddisfly larvae in a detritus-based stream food web. Freshwater Biology 53: 1579-1591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2008.01995.x.
  • Harding JS., Norton DA. and McIntosh AR. (2007) Persistence of a significant population of rare Canterbury mudfish (Neochanna burrowsius) in a unique hydrologically isolated catchment. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41(3): 309-316.
  • Winterbourn MJ., Harding JS. and McIntosh AR. (2007) Response of the benthic fauna of an urban stream during six years of restoration. New Zealand Natural Sciences 32: 1-12.
  • Eikaas HS. and McIntosh AR. (2006) Habitat loss through disruption of constrained dispersal networks. Ecological Applications 16(3): 987-998.
  • Holmqvist N., Stenroth P., Berglund O., Nyström P., Olsson K., Jellyman D., McIntosh AR. and Larsson P. (2006) Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources. Environmental Pollution 141(3): 532-538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.08.052.
  • Nilsson E., Hertonsson P., Stenberg M., Brodersen J., Olsson K., Stenroth P., Lakowitz T., Brönmark C., Nyström P. and McIntosh AR. (2006) Facilitation and interference among three predators affect their consumption of a stream-dwelling mayfly. Freshwater Biology 51(8): 1507-1514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2006.01581.x.
  • Olsson K., Stenroth P., Nyström P., Holmqvist N., McIntosh AR. and Winterbourn MJ. (2006) Does natural acidity mediate interactions between introduced brown trout, native fish, crayfish and other invertebrates in West Coast New Zealand streams? Biological Conservation 130(2): 255-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.12.019.
  • Wissinger SA., McIntosh AR. and Greig HS. (2006) Impacts of introduced brown and rainbow trout on benthic invertebrate communities in shallow New Zealand lakes. Freshwater Biology 51(11): 2009-2028. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2006.01629.x.
  • Eikaas HS., Harding JS., Kliskey AD. and McIntosh AR. (2005) The effect of terrestrial habitat fragmentation on fish populations in small streams: A case study from New Zealand. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift-Norwegian Journal of Geography 59(4): 269-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00291950500375351.
  • Eikaas HS., Kliskey AD. and McIntosh AR. (2005) Spatial modeling and habitat quantification for two diadromous fish in New Zealand streams: A GIS-based approach with application for conservation management. Environmental Management 36: 726-740.
  • Eikaas HS., McIntosh AR. and Kliskey AD. (2005) Catchment- and site-scale influences of forest cover and longitudinal forest position on the distribution of a diadromous fish. Freshwater Biology 50: 527-538.
  • McIntosh AR., Greig HS., McMurtrie SA., Nyström P. and Winterbourn MJ. (2005) Top-down and bottom-up influences on populations of a stream detritivore. Freshwater Biology 50: 1206-1218.
  • Bonnett ML. and McIntosh AR. (2004) The influence of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) on habitat use of inanga (Galaxias maculatus) in a stream simulator. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 34: 357-367.
  • Greenwood M. and McIntosh AR. (2004) Influence of environmental conditions on nymphal development of Deleatidium fumosum mayflies. New Zealand Natural Sciences 29: 55-66.
  • McIntosh AR. and Peckarsky BL. (2004) Are mayfly anti-predator responses to fish odour proportional to risk? Archiv für Hydrobiologie 160: 145-151.
  • McIntosh AR., Peckarsky BL. and Taylor BW. (2004) Predator-induced resource heterogeneity in a stream food web. Ecology 85(8): 2279-2290.
  • Nyström P. and McIntosh AR. (2003) Are impacts of an exotic predator on a stream food web influenced by disturbance history? Oecologia 136(2): 279-288.
  • Nyström P., McIntosh AR. and Winterbourn MJ. (2003) Top-down and bottom-up processes in grassland and forested streams. Oecologia 136(4): 596-608.
  • McIntosh AR. (2002) Impact of introduced trout on Nesameletus mayfly population measured using electrofishing. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 154: 375-392.
  • McIntosh AR., Peckarsky BL. and Taylor BW. (2002) The influence of predatory fish on mayfly drift: extrapolating from experiments to nature. Freshwater Biology 47(8): 1497-1513.
  • Peckarsky BL., McIntosh AR., Caudill CC. and Dahl J. (2002) Swarming and mating behavior of a mayfly Baetis bicaudatus suggest stabilizing selection for male body size. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 51(6): 530-537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-002-0471-5.
  • Peckarsky BL., McIntosh AR., Caudill CC. and Dahl J. (2002) Swarming and mating behaviour of a mayfly suggest stabilizing selection for male body size. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 51: 530-537.
  • Peckarsky BL., McIntosh AR., Taylor BW. and Dahl J. (2002) Predator chemicals induce changes in mayfly life history traits: a whole-stream manipulation. Ecology 83(3): 612-618.
  • Taylor BW., McIntosh AR. and Peckarsky BL. (2002) Reach-scale manipulations show invertebrate grazers depress algal resources in streams. Limnology and Oceanography 47(3): 893-899.
  • Peckarsky BL., Taylor BW., McIntosh AR., McPeek MA. and Lytle DA. (2001) Variation in mayfly size at metamorphosis as a developmental response to risk of predation. Ecology 82(3): 740-757.
  • Taylor BW., McIntosh AR. and Peckarsky BL. (2001) Sampling stream invertebrates using electroshocking techniques: Implications for basic and applied research. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58(3): 437-445.
  • Thompson RM., Edwards ED., McIntosh AR. and Townsend CR. (2001) Allocation of effort in stream food-web studies: the best compromise? Marine and Freshwater Research 52: 339-345.
  • McIntosh AR. (2000) Habitat- and size-related variations in exotic trout impacts on native galaxiid fishes in New Zealand streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57(10): 2140-2151.
  • McIntosh AR. and Peckarsky BL. (1999) Criteria determining behavioural responses to multiple predators by a stream mayfly. Oikos 85(3): 554-564.
  • McIntosh AR., Peckarsky BL. and Taylor BW. (1999) Rapid size-specific changes in the drift of Baetis bicaudatus (Ephemeroptera) caused by alterations in fish odour concentration. Oecologia 118(2): 256-264.
  • McIntosh AR. and Townsend CR. (1998) Do different predators affect distance, direction, and destination of movements by a stream mayfly? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 1954-1960.
  • Peckarsky BL. and McIntosh AR. (1998) Fitness and community consequences of avoiding multiple predators. Oecologia 113: 565-576.
  • Townsend CR., Thompson RM., McIntosh AR., Kilroy C., Edwards E. and Scarsbrook MR. (1998) Disturbance, resource supply, and food-web architecture in streams. Ecology Letters 1: 200-209.
  • Peckarsky BL., Cooper SD. and McIntosh AR. (1997) Extrapolating from individual behavior to populations and communities in streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16(2): 375-390.
  • McIntosh AR. and Peckarsky BL. (1996) Differential behavioural responses of mayflies from streams with and without fish to trout odour. Freshwater Biology 35(1): 141-148.
  • McIntosh AR. and Peckarsky BL. (1996) Differential responses of mayflies from Rocky Mountain streams with and without fish to trout odour. Freshwater Biology 35: 141-148.
  • McIntosh AR. and Townsend CR. (1996) Interactions between fish, grazing invertebrates and algae in a New Zealand stream: a trophic cascade mediated by fish-induced changes to grazer behaviour? Oecologia 108: 174-181.
  • McIntosh AR. and Townsend CR. (1995) Contrasting predation risks presented by introduced brown trout and native common river galaxias in New Zealand streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52: 1821-1833.
  • McIntosh AR. and Townsend CR. (1995) Impacts of an introduced predatory fish on mayfly grazing periodicity in New Zealand streams. Limnology and Oceanography 40: 1508-1512.
  • McIntosh AR. and Townsend CR. (1994) Interpopulation variation in mayfly anti-predator tactics: differential effects of contrasting predatory fish. Ecology 75: 2078-2090.
  • McIntosh AR., Crowl TA. and Townsend CR. (1994) Size-related impacts of introduced brown trout on the distribution of native common river galaxiids. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 28: 135-144.
  • Crowl TA., Townsend CR. and McIntosh AR. (1992) The effect of introduced trout on native fish: the case of Australasia. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 2: 217-241.
  • Crowl TA., Townsend CR. and Mcintosh AR. (1992) The impact of introduced brown and rainbow trout on native fish: the case of Australasia. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 2(3): 217-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00045038.
  • McIntosh AR., Townsend CR. and Crowl TA. (1992) Competition for space between introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and a native galaxiid (Galaxias vulgaris Stokell) in a New Zealand stream. Journal of Fish Biology 41(1): 63-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1992.tb03170.x.
  • McIntosh AR., Townsend CR. and Crowl TA. (1992) Competition for space between introduced brown trout and a native galaxiid in a New Zealand stream. Journal of Fish Biology 41: 63-81.
  • McIntosh AR., Leigh C., Boersma KS., McHugh PA., Febria C. and García-Berthou E. (2017) Food webs and trophic interactions in intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams. In Datry T; Bonda N; Boulton A (Ed.), Intermittent Rivers and Ephemeral Streams Ecology and Management: 323-347. London: Academic Press.
  • McIntosh AR., Death RG., Greenwood MJ. and Paterson RA. (2016) Food webs of streams and rivers. In Jellyman PG; Davie TJA; Pearson CP; Harding JS (Ed.), Advances in New Zealand Freshwater Science: 261-282. Christchurch: New Zealand Freshwater Sciences and Hydrological Societies.
  • Scarsbrook M., McIntosh AR., Wilcock RJ. and Matthaei C. (2016) Effects of agriculture on water quality. In Jellyman PG; Davie TJA; Pearson CP; Harding JS (Ed.), Advances in New Zealand Freshwater Science: 483-504. Christchurch: New Zealand Freshwater Sciences and Hydrological Societies.
  • McIntosh AR., McHugh P. and Budy P. (2011) Salmo trutta L. (brown trout). In Francis RA (Ed.), A Handbook of Global Freshwater Invasive Species: 283-296. Abingdon: Routledge/Earthscan.
  • Peckarsky BL., Allan JD., McIntosh AR. and Taylor BW. (2010) Understanding the Role of Predation in Open Systems: The Value of Place-Based Research. In Billick I; Price MV (Ed.), The Ecology of Place: Contributions of Place-Based Research to Ecological Understanding: 185-206. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • McDowall R. and McIntosh A. (2008) Freshwater Fishes. In Winterbourn M; Knox G; Burrows C; Marsden I (Ed.), The Natural History of Canterbury (3rd ed.): 616-650. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press.
  • McIntosh AR. and McDowall RM. (2004) Fish communities in streams and rivers. In Harding JS; Mosely P; Pearson C; Sorrell B (Ed.), Freshwaters of New Zealand: 17.1-17.19. Christchurch: New Zealand Limnological and Hydrological Societies.
  • McIntosh AR. (2000) Predator-prey interactions. In Collier KJ; Winterbourn MJ (Ed.), New Zealand Stream Invertebrates: Ecology and Implications for Management: 125-156. Christchurch: New Zealand Limnological Society.
  • Woodford DJ. and McIntosh AR. (2013) Effects of introduced trout predation on non-diadromous galaxiid fish populations across invaded riverscapes. Science for Conservation 320.Commissioned by Department of Conservation. 23pp.