UC SPARK - University of Canterbury - New Zealand

Associate Professor Christoph Bartneck

Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand (HIT Lab NZ)

Fields of Research

  • Human-Robot Interaction
  • Science and Technology Studies
  • Visual Design

Researcher Summary

Dr. Christoph Bartneck is an associate professor and director of postgraduate studies at the HIT Lab NZ of the University of Canterbury. He has a background in Industrial Design and Human-Computer Interaction, and his projects and studies have been published in leading journals, newspapers, and conferences. His interests lie in the fields of Human-Computer Interaction, Science and Technology Studies, and Visual Design. More specifically, he focuses on the effect of anthropomorphism on human-robot interaction. As a secondary research interest he works on bibliometric analyses, agent based social simulations, and the critical review on scientific processes and policies. In the field of Design Christoph investigates the history of product design, tessellations and photography.

He has worked for several international organizations including the Technology Centre of Hannover (Germany), LEGO (Denmark), Eagle River Interactive (USA), Philips Research (Netherlands), ATR (Japan), and The Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands). The press regularly reports on his work, including the New Scientist, Scientific American, Popular Science, Wired, New York Times, The Times, BBC, Huffington Post, Washington Post, The Guardian, and The Economist.

Subject Area: Disciplines

Research Groups

Affiliations

Research/Scholarly/Creative Works

  • Bartneck, C. (2017) Reviewers’ scores do not predict impact: bibliometric analysis of the proceedings of the human–robot interaction conference. Scientometrics 110(1): 179-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11192-016-2176-y. (Journal articles)
  • Złotowski, J., Yogeeswaran, K. and Bartneck, C. (2017) Can we control it? Autonomous robots threaten human identity, uniqueness, safety, and resources. International Journal of Human Computer Studies 100: 48-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.12.008. (Journal articles)
  • Zlotowski, J., Yogeeswaran, K. and Bartneck, C. (2017) Can we control it? Robot autonomy impacts both realistic and identity threat to humans and promotes opposition to robotics.. International Journal of Human Computer Studies (Journal articles)
  • Altimira, D., Mueller, FF., Clarke, J., Lee, G., Billinghurst, M. and Bartneck, C. (2016) Digitally Augmenting Sports: An Opportunity for Exploring and Understanding Novel Balancing Techniques. San Jose, CA: 34th Annual CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI4GOOD), 7 May 2016 - 12 May 2016. In 34TH ANNUAL CHI CONFERENCE ON HUMAN FACTORS IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS, CHI 2016: 1681-1691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2858036.2858277. (Conference - Published)
  • Barneck, C. and Jensma, N. (2016) The Unofficial LEGO Minfigure Catalog App. [Mobile App]. (Software / Code)
  • Bartneck, C., Nagai, Y., Paiva, A. and Šabanovic, S. (2016) HRI'16 chairs' welcome. Christchurch, New Zealand: 2016 11th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), 7 Mar 2016 - 10 Mar 2016. In ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2016-April http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HRI.2016.7451721. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, Christoph. (2016) The Ideal Order. Lulu Press, Inc. (Authored Books)
  • Beckner, C., Racz, P., Hay, J., Brandstetter, J. and Bartneck, C. (2016) Participants conform to humans but not to humanoid robots in an English past tense formation task. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 35(2): 158-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X15584682. (Journal articles)
  • Beckner, C., Rácz, P., Hay, J., Brandstetter, J. and Bartneck, C. (2016) Participants Conform to Humans but Not to Humanoid Robots in an English Past Tense Formation Task. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 35(2): 158-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X15584682. (Journal articles)
  • Chouhan, D., Bello-Mendoza, R. and Wareham, DG. (2016) Biodegradation of MCPA and nitrate removal in an anoxic SBR. Munich, Germany: 18th EWA International Symposium "Challenges Arising from Micro-Pollutants in Wastewater, Water and Environment", 1 Jun 2016 - 2 Jun 2016. : 70-78. (Conference - Published)
  • Höylä, T., Bartneck, C. and Tiihonen, T. (2016) The consequences of competition: simulating the effects of research grant allocation strategies. Scientometrics 108(1): 263-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11192-016-1940-3. (Journal articles)
  • Obaid, M., Sandoval, EB., Zlotowski, J., Moltchanova, E., Basedow, CA. and Bartneck, C. (2016) Stop! That is close enough. How body postures influence human-robot proximity. In 25th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN 2016: 354-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2016.7745155. (Conference - Published)
  • Sandoval, EB., Brandstetter, J. and Bartneck, C. (2016) Can a Robot Bribe a Human? The Measurement of the Negative Side of Reciprocity in Human Robot Interaction. Christchurch, NEW ZEALAND: 11th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), 7 Mar 2016 - 10 Mar 2016. In 2016 11TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION (HRI): 117-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HRI.2016.7451742. (Conference - Published)
  • Sandoval, EB., Brandstetter, J., Obaid, M. and Bartneck, C. (2016) Reciprocity in Human-Robot Interaction: A Quantitative Approach Through the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Ultimatum Game. International Journal of Social Robotics 8(2): 303-317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12369-015-0323-x. (Journal articles)
  • Yogeeswaran, Kumar., Złotowski, Jakub., Livingstone, Megan., Bartneck, Christoph., Sumioka, Hidenobu. and Ishiguro, Hiroshi. (2016) The Interactive Effects of Robot Anthropomorphism and Robot Ability on Perceived Threat and Support for Robotics Research. Journal of Human-Robot Interaction 5(2): 29-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.5898/JHRI.5.2.Yogeeswaran. (Journal articles)
  • Złotowski, Jakub., Sumioka, Hidenobu., Nishio, Shuichi., Glas, Dylan F., Bartneck, Christoph. and Ishiguro, Hiroshi. (2016) Appearance of a Robot Affects the Impact of its Behaviour on Perceived Trustworthiness and Empathy. Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics 7(1) http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/pjbr-2016-0005. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C. (2015) The 2014 LEGO Minifigure Catalog. Charlston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. (2015) The Ideal Order. (1st ed.) Charlston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. (2015) The Star Wars LEGO Minifigure Catalog. (4th ed.) Charlston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. and Clark, A. (2015) Semi-automatic color analysis for brand logos. Color Research and Application 40(1): 72-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/col.21853. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C., Duenser, A., Moltchanova, E. and Zawieska, K. (2015) Comparing the similarity of responses received from studies in Amazon's Mechanical Turk to studies conducted online and with direct recruitment. PLoS ONE 10(4) http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121595. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C., Soucy, M., Fleuret, K. and Sandoval, EB. (2015) The robot engine - Making the unity 3D game engine work for HRI. In Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication 2015-November: 431-437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2015.7333561. (Conference - Published)
  • Mubin, Omar. and Bartneck, Christoph. (2015) Do as I say: Exploring human response to a predictable and unpredictable robot. Lincoln, ENGLAND: British HCI Conference, 13 Jul 2015 - 17 Jul 2015. In BRITISH HCI 2015: 110-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2783446.2783582. (Conference - Published)
  • Obaid, M., Dünser, A., Moltchanova, E., Cummings, D., Wagner, J. and Bartneck, C. (2015) LEGO pictorial scales for assessing affective response. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 9296: 263-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22701-6_19. (Conference - Published)
  • Weiss, A. and Bartneck, C. (2015) Meta analysis of the usage of the Godspeed Questionnaire Series. In Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication 2015-November: 381-388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2015.7333568. (Conference - Published)
  • Złotowski, J., Proudfoot, D., Yogeeswaran, K. and Bartneck, C. (2015) Anthropomorphism: Opportunities and Challenges in Human–Robot Interaction. International Journal of Social Robotics 7(3): 347-360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12369-014-0267-6. (Journal articles)
  • Zlotowski, Jakub A., Sumioka, Hidenobu., Nishio, Shuichi., Glas, Dylan F., Bartneck, Christoph. and Ishiguro, Hiroshi. (2015) Persistence of the uncanny valley: the influence of repeated interactions and a robot's attitude on its perception. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY 6 http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00883. (Journal articles)
  • Aamir, R., Chernoglazov, A., Bateman, CJ., Butler, APH., Butler, PH., Anderson, NG., Bell, ST., Panta, RK., Healy, JL., Mohr, JL., Rajendran, K., Walsh, MF., De Ruiter, N., Gieseg, SP., Woodfield, T., Renaud, PF., Brooke, L., Abdul-Majid, S., Clyne, M., Glendenning, R., Bones, PJ., Billinghurst, M., Bartneck, C., Mandalika, H., Grasset, R., Schleich, N., Scott, N., Nik, SJ., Opie, A., Janmale, T., Tang, DN., Kim, D., Doesburg, RM., Zainon, R., Ronaldson, JP., Cook, NJ., Smithies, DJ. and Hodge, K. (2014) MARS spectral molecular imaging of lamb tissue: Data collection and image analysis. Journal of Instrumentation 9(2) http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/9/02/P02005. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C. (2014) The 2012 LEGO Minifigure Catalog. (2nd ed.) Charlston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. (2014) The 2012 LEGO Minifigure Catalog. Charleston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. (2014) The 2013 LEGO Minifigure Catalog. Charlston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. (2014) The Star Wars LEGO Minifigure Catalog. (2nd ed.) Charleston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. (2014) The Star Wars LEGO Minifigure Catalog. (3rd ed.) Charlston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. (2014) The Unofficial LEGO Minifigure Catalog. (2nd ed.) Charleston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Brandstetter, J., Rácz, P., Beckner, C., Sandoval, EB., Hay, J. and Bartneck, C. (2014) A peer pressure experiment: Recreation of the Asch conformity experiment with robots. In IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems: 1335-1340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2014.6942730. (Conference - Published)
  • Brandstetter, J., Racz, P., Beckner, C., Sandoval, EB., Hay, J. and Bartneck, C. (2014) A peer pressure experiment: Recreation of the Asch conformity experiment with robots. In on (pp. ). IEEE. Chicago, IL, USA: International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2014), 14 Sep 2014 - 18 Sep 2014. : 1335-1340. (Conference - Published)
  • Heitz, Alexandre., Dünser, Andreas., Bartneck, Christoph., Grady, Jonathan. and Moran, Catherine. (2014) Assessing the impact of a Clinical Audiology Simulator on first year students.. In AUIC 150: 11-20. (Conference - Published)
  • Mubin, O., Henderson, J. and Bartneck, C. (2014) You just do not understand me! Speech Recognition in Human Robot Interaction. In IEEE RO-MAN 2014 - 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication: Human-Robot Co-Existence: Adaptive Interfaces and Systems for Daily Life, Therapy, Assistance and Socially Engaging Interactions: 637-642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2014.6926324. (Conference - Published)
  • Obaid, M., Kuchenbrandt, D. and Bartneck, C. (2014) Empathy and yawn contagion: Can we (Humans) catch yawns from robots? In ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction: 260-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2559636.2563702. (Conference - Published)
  • Rajendran, K., Walsh, MF., De Ruiter, NJA., Chernoglazov, AI., Panta, RK., Butler, APH., Butler, PH., Bell, ST., Anderson, NG., Woodfield, TBF., Tredinnick, SJ., Healy, JL., Bateman, CJ., Aamir, R., Doesburg, RMN., Renaud, PF., Gieseg, SP., Smithies, DJ., Mohr, JL., Mandalika, VBH., Opie, AMT., Cook, NJ., Ronaldson, JP., Nik, SJ., Atharifard, A., Clyne, M., Bones, PJ., Bartneck, C., Grasset, R., Schleich, N. and Billinghurst, M. (2014) Reducing beam hardening effects and metal artefacts in spectral CT using Medipix3RX. Journal of Instrumentation 9(3) http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/9/03/P03015. (Journal articles)
  • Złotowski, J., Strasser, E. and Bartneck, C. (2014) Dimensions of anthropomorphism: From humanness to humanlikeness. In ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction: 66-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2559636.2559679. (Conference - Published)
  • Baker, G., Cragg, P., Bartneck, C. and Seidel, S. (2013) End User Creativity: A Critical Realist Perspective. 4th Annual New Zealand Information Systems Doctoral Consortium (NZISDC), 26 Jul 2013 - 27 Jul 2013. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. (2013) Robots In The Theatre And The Media. 8th International Conference on Design and Semantics of Form and Movement (DeSForM 2013), 22 Sep 2013 - 25 Sep 2013. : 64-70. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Obaid, M. and Zawieska, K. (2013) Agents with faces - What can we learn from LEGO Minifigures? 1st International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI), 7 Aug 2013 - 9 Aug 2013. (Conference - Published)
  • Carson, Lydia., Bartneck, Christoph. and Voges, Kevin. (2013) Over-Competitiveness in Academia: A Literature Review. Disruptive Science and Technology 1(4): 183-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dst.2013.0013. (Journal articles)
  • Mubin, O., Henderson, J. and Bartneck, C. (2013) Talk ROILA to your Robot. In ICMI 2013 - Proceedings of the 2013 ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction: 317-318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2522848.2531752. (Conference - Published)
  • Mubin, Omar., Shahid, Suleman. and Bartneck, Christoph. (2013) Robot Assisted Language Learning through Games: A Comparison of Two Case Studies.. Austr. J. Intelligent Information Processing Systems 13 (Journal articles)
  • Partridge, M. and Bartneck, C. (2013) The Invisible Naked Guy: An exploration of a minimalistic robot. 1st International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction, 7 Aug 2013 - 9 Aug 2013. (Conference - Published)
  • Walker, R. and Bartneck, C. (2013) The pleasure of receiving a head massage from a robot. In Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication: 807-813. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2013.6628412. (Conference - Published)
  • Zlotowski, J. and Bartneck, C. (2013) The inversion effect in HRI: Are robots perceived more like humans or objects? In ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction: 365-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HRI.2013.6483611. (Conference - Published)
  • Zlotowski, J., Bleeker, T., Bartneck, C. and Reynolds, R. (2013) I sing the body electric an experimental theatre play with robots [video abstract]. In ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HRI.2013.6483630. (Conference - Published)
  • Zlotowski, J., Proudfoot, D. and Bartneck, C. (2013) More Human Than Human: Does The Uncanny Curve Really Matter? HRI2013 Workshop on Design of Humanlikeness in HRI: from uncanny valley to minimal design, 3 Mar 2013 - 6 Mar 2013. : 7-13. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. (2012) The 2011 LEGO Minifigure Catalog. Charleston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. (2012) The Complete LEGO Figure Catalog. Charleston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. (2012) The Harry Potter LEGO Minifigure Catalog. Charleston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. (2012) The Star Wars LEGO Minifigure Catalog. Charleston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C., Zawieska, K., Duenser, A. and Moltchanova, E. (2012) LEGO figurines as a tool of assessing emotions. New Zealand Statistical Association (NZSA) 2012 Conference, 28 Nov 2012 - 30 Nov 2012. (Conference - Other)
  • Juarez, A., Bartneck, C. and Feijs, L. (2012) Studying virtual worlds as medium for telepresence robots. In HRI'12 - Proceedings of the 7th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction: 157-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2157689.2157733. (Conference - Published)
  • Mubin, Omar., Bartneck, Christoph., Feijs, Loe., Hooft van Huysduynen, Hanneke., Hu, Jun. and Muelver, Jerry. (2012) Improving Speech Recognition with the Robot Interaction Language. Disruptive Science and Technology 1(2): 79-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dst.2012.0010. (Journal articles)
  • Piumsomboon, T., Clifford, R. and Bartneck, C. (2012) Demonstrating Maori Haka with kinect and nao robots. In HRI'12 - Proceedings of the 7th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2157689.2157832. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. (2011) The Family History And Genealogy of Johann Ferdinand Thöne and Maria Anna Juliana Antonette Drewes. (1st ed.) Charlston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. (2011) The Unofficial LEGO Minifigure Catalog. Charleston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)
  • Bartneck, C. and Mutlu, B. (Ed.) (2011) Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): Preface. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25504-5. (Edited Volumes)
  • Juarez, A., Bartneck, C. and Feijs, L. (2011) Using semantic technologies to describe robotic embodiments. In HRI 2011 - Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction: 425-432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1957656.1957812. (Conference - Published)
  • Koenig, S., Crucian, G., Dünser, A., Bartneck, C. and Dalrymple-Alford, J. (2011) Validity evaluation of a spatial memory task in virtual environments. International Journal of Design and Innovation Research 6(1): 1-13. (Journal articles)
  • Koenig, S., Crucian, GP., Dünser, A., Bartneck, C. and Dalrymple-Alford, J. (2011) Development of a spatial memory task in realistic virtual environments. Laval: 13th International Conference and Exhibition on Virtual Reality and Converging Technologies (VRIC 2011), 6 Apr 2011 - 10 Apr 2011. In Proceedings of Virtual Reality International Conference (VRIC 2011) (Conference - Other)
  • Koenig, ST., Dunser, A., Bartneck, C., Dalrymple-Alford, JC. and Crucian, GP. (2011) Development of virtual environments for patient-centered rehabilitation. In 2011 International Conference on Virtual Rehabilitation, ICVR 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICVR.2011.5971838. (Conference - Published)
  • Mutlu, B., Bartneck, C., Ham, J., Evers, V. and Kanda, T. (Ed.) (2011) Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Robotics, ICSR 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, November 24-25, 2011. Berlin: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25504-5. (Edited Volumes)
  • Van Der Vlist, B., Bartneck, C. and Mäueler, S. (2011) moBeat: Using interactive music to guide and motivate users during aerobic exercising. Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback 36(2): 135-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10484-011-9149-y. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C. (2010) The all-in publication policy. In 4th International Conference on Digital Society, ICDS 2010, Includes CYBERLAWS 2010: The 1st International Conference on Technical and Legal Aspects of the e-Society: 37-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICDS.2010.14. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, Christoph., Bleeker, Timo., Bun, Jeroen., Fens, Pepijn. and Riet, Lynyrd. (2010) The influence of robot anthropomorphism on the feelings of embarrassment when interacting with robots. Paladyn, Journal of Behavioral Robotics 1(2) http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s13230-010-0011-3. (Journal articles)
  • Chew, S., Tay, W., Smit, D. and Bartneck, C. (2010) Do social robots walk or roll? In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 6414 LNAI: 355-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17248-9_37. (Conference - Published)
  • Hu, J., Chen, W., Bartneck, C. and Rauterberg, M. (2010) Transferring design knowledge: Challenges and opportunities. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 6249 LNCS: 165-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14533-9_17. (Conference - Published)
  • Mubin, O., Bartneck, C. and Feijs, L. (2010) Towards the design and evaluation of ROILA: A speech recognition friendly artificial language. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 6233 LNAI: 250-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14770-8_28. (Conference - Published)
  • Mubin, O., Bartneck, C. and Feijs, L. (2010) Using word spotting to evaluate ROILA: A speech recognition friendly artificial language. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings: 3289-3294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1753846.1753973. (Conference - Published)
  • Mubin, O., Shahid, S., Van De Sande, E., Krahmer, E., Swerts, M., Bartneck, C. and Feijs, L. (2010) Using child-robot interaction to investigate the user acceptance of constrained and artificial languages. In Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication: 588-593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2010.5598731. (Conference - Published)
  • Saerbeck, M. and Bartneck, C. (2010) Perception of affect elicited by robot motion. In 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2010: 53-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1734454.1734473. (Conference - Published)
  • Saerbeck, M., Schut, T., Bartneck, C. and Janse, MD. (2010) Expressive robots in education: Varying the degree of social supportive behavior of a robotic tutor. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings 3: 1613-1622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1753326.1753567. (Conference - Published)
  • Schonenberg, B. and Bartneck, C. (2010) Mysterious machines. In 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2010: 349-350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1734454.1734572. (Conference - Published)
  • Tan, C., Chen, W., Verbunt, M., Bartneck, C. and Rauterberg, M. (2010) Adaptive posture advisory system for spinal cord injury patient during long haul air travel. In Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference 2009, DETC2009 3: 223-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/DETC2009-86076. (Conference - Published)
  • Verbunt, M. and Bartneck, C. (2010) Sensing senses: Tactile feedback for the prevention of Decubitus ulcers. Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback 35(3): 243-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10484-009-9124-z. (Journal articles)
  • Aart, JV., Bartneck, C., Hu, J., Rauterberg, M. and Salem, B. (2009) How to behave as Alice in Wonderland-about boredom and curiosity. Entertainment Computing 1(3-4): 125-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.entcom.2010.09.003. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C. (2009) Using the metaphysics of quality to define design science. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, DESRIST '09 http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1555619.1555627. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. and Hu, J. (2009) Scientometric analysis of the CHI proceedings. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings: 699-708. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1518701.1518810. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. and Lyons, MJ. (2009) Facial expression analysis, modeling and synthesis: Overcoming the limitations of artificial intelligence with the art of the soluble. Handbook of Research on Synthetic Emotions and Sociable Robotics: New Applications in Affective Computing and Artificial Intelligence: 34-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-60566-354-8.ch003. (Chapters)
  • Bartneck, C., Kanda, T., Ishiguro, H. and Hagita, N. (2009) My robotic doppelgänger - A critical look at the Uncanny Valley. In Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication: 269-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2009.5326351. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Kanda, T., Mubin, O. and Al Mahmud, A. (2009) Does the design of a robot influence its animacy and perceived intelligence? International Journal of Social Robotics 1(2): 195-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12369-009-0013-7. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C., Kulić, D., Croft, E. and Zoghbi, S. (2009) Measurement instruments for the anthropomorphism, animacy, likeability, perceived intelligence, and perceived safety of robots. International Journal of Social Robotics 1(1): 71-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12369-008-0001-3. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, Christoph., Funk, Mathias. and Bhömer, Martijn ten. (2009) Dancing with myself: the interactive visual canon platform.. In CHI Extended Abstracts: 3501-3502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1520340.1520512. (Conference - Published)
  • Feijs, L. and Bartneck, C. (2009) Teaching Geometrical Principles to Design Students. Digital Culture & Education 1(2): 104-115. (Journal articles)
  • Hoekstra, A., Bartneck, C. and Lyons, MJ. (2009) The hyper-trapeze: A physically active audio-visual interface for performance and play. In Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 9 LNICST: 201-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02315-6_20. (Conference - Published)
  • Juarez, Alex., Bartneck, C. and Feijs, Loe. (2009) On the creation of standards for interaction between real robots and virtual worlds. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research 2(3): 4-8. (Journal articles)
  • Meerbeek, B., Saerbeck, M. and Bartneck, C. (2009) Iterative design process for robots with personality. In Adaptive and Emergent Behaviour and Complex Systems - Proceedings of the 23rd Convention of the Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour, AISB 2009: 94-101. (Conference - Published)
  • Mubin, O., Bartneck, C. and Feijs, L. (2009) Designing an artificial robotic interaction language. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 5727 LNCS(PART 2): 848-851. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03658-3_93. (Conference - Published)
  • Mubin, O., Bartneck, C. and Feijs, L. (2009) What you say is not what you get: Arguing for Artificial Languages Instead of Natural Languages in Human Robot Speech Interaction. Toyama: Spoken Dialogue and Human-Robot Interaction Workshop at IEEE RoMan 2009, 1-7-2009. In Spoken Dialogue and Human-Robot Interaction Workshop at IEEE RoMan 2009 (Conference - Published)
  • Mubin, O., Krahmer, E., Shahid, S., Swerts, M., Bartneck, C. and Feijs, L. (2009) Using Language Tests and emotional expressions to determine the learnability of artificial languages. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings: 4075-4080. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1520340.1520620. (Conference - Published)
  • Ogawa, K., Bartneck, C., Sakamoto, D., Kanda, T., Ono, T. and Ishiguro, H. (2009) Can an android persuade you? In Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication: 516-521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2009.5326352. (Conference - Published)
  • Ten Bhömer, M., Bartneck, C., Hu, J., Ahn, R., Tuyls, K., Delbressine, F. and Feijs, L. (2009) Developing Novel Extensions to Support Prototyping for Interactive Social Robots. In Belgian/Netherlands Artificial Intelligence Conference: 11-17. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. (2008) HRI caught on film 2. In HRI 2008 - Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction: Living with Robots: 383-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1349822.1349873. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. (2008) What is good? - A comparison between the quality criteria used in design and science. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings: 2485-2492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1358628.1358705. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. (2008) Who like androids more: Japanese or US Americans? In Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN: 553-557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2008.4600724. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Brahnam, S., De Angeli, A. and Pelachaud, C. (2008) Editorial: Misuse and abuse of interactive technologies. Interaction Studies 9(3): 397-401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/is.9.3.01edi. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C., Croft, E. and Kulic, D. (2008) Measuring the anthropomorphism, animacy, likeability, perceived intelligence and perceived safety of robots. Amsterdam: Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction Workshop in affiliation with the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI 2008), 30-6-2008. : 37-44. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Kanda, T., Mubin, O. and Mahmud, AA. (2008) The perception of animacy and intelligence based on a robot's embodiment. In Proceedings of the 2007 7th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, HUMANOIDS 2007: 300-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICHR.2007.4813884. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Lyons, MJ. and Saerbeck, M. (2008) The Relationship Between Emotion Models and Artificial Intelligence. Osaka: SAB2008 Workshop on The Role of Emotion in Adaptive Behavior and Cognitive Robotics, 30-6-2008. (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C., Reichenbach, J. and Carpenter, J. (2008) The carrot and the stick: The role of praise and punishment in human-robot interaction. Interaction Studies 9(2): 179-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/is.9.2.03bar. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, Christoph. and Rauterberg, Matthias. (2008) The asymmetry between discoveries and inventions in the Nobel Prize in Physics. Technoetic Arts 6(1): 73-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1386/tear.6.1.73_1. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, Christoph., Hu, Jun., Salem, Ben., Cristescu, Razvan. and Rauterberg, Matthias. (2008) Applying Virtual and Augmented Reality in Cultural Computing.. IJVR 7: 11-18. (Journal articles)
  • Hu, J. and Bartneck, C. (2008) Culture matters: A study on presence in an interactive movie. Cyberpsychology and Behavior 11(5): 529-535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.0093. (Journal articles)
  • Hu, J., Bartneck, C., Salem, B. and Rauterberg, M. (2008) ALICE's adventures in cultural computing. International Journal of Arts and Technology 1(1): 102-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJART.2008.019885. (Journal articles)
  • Meerbeek, B., Saerbeck, M. and Bartneck, C. (2008) Towards a design method for expressive robots. In Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI'09: 277-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1514095.1514174. (Conference - Published)
  • Van Aart, J., Klaver, ERG., Bartneck, C., Feijs, LMG. and Peters, PJF. (2008) EEG headset for neurofeedback therapy - Enabling easy use in the home environment. In BIOSIGNALS 2008 - Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing 2: 23-30. (Conference - Published)
  • Van Aart, J., Salem, B., Bartneck, C., Hu, J. and Rauterberg, M. (2008) Designing for experience: Arousing boredom to evoke predefined user behaviour. In Proceedings from the 6th Conference on Design and Emotion 2008 (Conference - Published)
  • Van Der Vlist, B., Van De Westelaken, R., Bartneck, C., Hu, J., Ahn, R., Barakova, E., Delbressine, F. and Feijs, L. (2008) Teaching machine learning to design students. : 206-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69736-7_23. (Chapters)
  • Aart, v., J, Klaver., E, Bartneck., C, Feijs., L, Peters. and P. (2007) Neurofeedback Gaming for Wellbeing. Salzburg: Brain-Computer Interfaces and Games Workshop at the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, 29-6-2007. In Brain-Computer Interfaces and Games Workshop at the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 3-5. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. (2007) Design Methodology is not Design Science. San Jose: CHI 2007 Workshop: Converging on a "Science of Design" through the Synthesis of Design Methodologies, 29-6-2007. (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C. (2007) Navigation styles in QuickTime VR scenes. Beijing: HCI International Posters: Part VII - Virtual and Augmented Environments, 29-6-2007. In HCI International Posters: Part VII - Virtual and Augmented Environments: 801-805. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. (2007) Quality Criteria for Design and Science. San Jose: CHI 2007 Workshop: Exploring Design as a Research Activity, 29-6-2007. (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C. and Kanda, T. (2007) HRI caught on film. In HRI 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 ACM/IEEE Conference on Human-Robot Interaction - Robot as Team Member: 177-183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1228716.1228740. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. and Lyons, MJ. (2007) HCI and the face: Towards an art of the soluble. : 20-29. (Chapters)
  • Bartneck, C., Athanasiadou, P. and Kanda, T. (2007) Hit me baby one more time: A haptic rating interface. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 4551 LNCS(PART 2): 743-747. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Berg, F., Compen, C., Wessel, A. and Groenendaal, B. (2007) Cats and Dogs. New York: 2nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, 29-6-2007. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1228716.1228740. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Kanda, T., Ishiguro, H. and Hagita, N. (2007) Is the uncanny valley an uncanny cliff? In Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication: 368-373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2007.4415111. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Suzuki, T., Kanda, T. and Nomura, T. (2007) The influence of people's culture and prior experiences with Aibo on their attitude towards robots. AI and Society 21(1): 217-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00146-006-0052-7. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C., Van Der Hoek, M., Mubin, O. and Al Mahmud, A. (2007) "Daisy, Daisy, give me your answer do!": Switching off a robot. In HRI 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 ACM/IEEE Conference on Human-Robot Interaction - Robot as Team Member: 217-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1228716.1228746. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Verbunt, M., Mubin, O. and Al Mahmud, A. (2007) To kill a mockingbird robot. In HRI 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 ACM/IEEE Conference on Human-Robot Interaction - Robot as Team Member: 81-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1228716.1228728. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, Christoph., Masuoka, Aya., Takahashi, Toru. and Fukaya, Takugo. (2007) An electronic museum guide in real use.. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts 1(2): 114-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1931-3896.1.2.114. (Journal articles)
  • Kooijmans, T., Kanda, T., Bartneck, C., Ishiguro, H. and Hagita, N. (2007) Accelerating robot development through integral analysis of human-robot interaction. IEEE Transactions on Robotics 23(5): 1001-1012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2007.906263. (Journal articles)
  • Mubin, O., Al Mahmud, A. and Bartneck, C. (2007) TEMo-chine: Tangible emotion machine. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 4662 LNCS(PART 1): 511-514. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. (2006) Killing a Robot. Montreal: Workshop on Misuse and Abuse of Interactive Technologies in cooperation with the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI2006), 28-6-2006. (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C. (2006) Reflection on Robotic Intelligence. Montreal: CHI2006 Workshop on HCI and the Face, 28-6-2006. (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C., Reichenbach, J. and Carpenter, J. (2006) Use of praise and punishment in human-robot collaborative teams. In Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication: 177-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2006.314414. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, Christoph., Masuoka, Aya., Takahashi, Toru. and Fukaya, Takugo. (2006) The learning experience with electronic museum guides.. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts S(1): 18-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1931-3896.S.1.18. (Journal articles)
  • Kooijmans, T., Kanda, T., Bartneck, C., Ishiguro, H. and Hagita, N. (2006) Interaction debugging: An integral approach to analyze human-robot interaction. In HRI 2006: Proceedings of the 2006 ACM Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2006: 64-71. (Conference - Published)
  • Reichenbach, J., Bartneck, C. and Carpenter, J. (2006) Well done, Robot! - The importance of praise and presence in human-robot collaboration. In Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication: 86-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMAN.2006.314399. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. and Hu, Jun. (2005) Presence in a Distributed Media Environment. München: Pervasive2005 Workshop on User Experience Design for Pervasive Computing, 27-6-2005. (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C. and Reichenbach, J. (2005) Subtle emotional expressions of synthetic characters. International Journal of Human Computer Studies 62(2): 179-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2004.11.006. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C., Nomura, T., Kanda, T., Suzuki, T. and Kato, K. (2005) Cultural differences in attitudes towards robots. In AISB'05 Convention: Social Intelligence and Interaction in Animals, Robots and Agents - Proceedings of the Symposium on Robot Companions: Hard Problems and Open Challenges in Robot-Human Interaction: 1-4. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Nomura, T., Kanda, T., Suzuki, T. and Kennsuke, K. (2005) A cross-cultural study on attitudes towards robots. Las Vegas: HCI International, 27-6-2005. In HCI International 10 (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Rosalia, C., Menges, R. and Deckers, I. (2005) Robot Abuse - A Limitation of the Media Equation. Rome: Interact 2005 Workshop on Abuse, 27-6-2005. (Conference - Other)
  • Hu, J. and Bartneck, C. (2005) Culture matters - a study on presence in an interactive movie. London: 8th Annual International Workshop on Presence, 27-6-2005. : 153-159. (Conference - Published)
  • Rosalia, C., Menges, R., Deckers, I. and Bartneck, C. (2005) Cruelty towards robots. Goteborg: Robot Workshop - Designing Robot Applications for Everyday Use, 27-6-2005. (Conference - Other)
  • Suzuki, N. and Bartneck, C. (2005) Special issue on subtle expressivity for characters and robots. International Journal of Human Computer Studies 62(2): 159-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2004.11.004. (Journal articles)
  • Takahashi, T., Bartneck, C., Katagiri, Y. and Arai, NH. (2005) TelMeA - Expressive avatars in asynchronous communications. International Journal of Human Computer Studies 62(2): 193-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2004.11.005. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C. (2004) From Fiction to Science - A cultural reflection on social robots. Vienna: CHI2004 Workshop on Shaping Human-Robot Interaction, 26-6-2004. : 35-38. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. and Forlizzi, J. (2004) A design-centred framework for social human-robot interaction. In Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication: 591-594. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. and Forlizzi, J. (2004) Shaping human-robot interaction: Understanding the social aspects of intelligent robotic products. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings: 1731-1732. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/985921.986205. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. and Hu, J. (2004) Rapid Prototyping for Interactive Robots. Amsterdam: 8th Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-8), 26-6-2004. : 136-145. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Reichenbach, J. and Breemen, A. (2004) In your face, robot! The influence of a character’s embodiment on how users perceive its emotional expressions. Ankara: Design and Emotion 2004, 26-6-2004. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C., Takahashi, T. and Katagiri, Y. (2004) Cross Cultural Study of Animated Characters. Twente: Social Intelligence Design 2004, 26-6-2004. (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C. (2003) Interacting with an Embodied Emotional Character. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces: 55-60. (Conference - Published)
  • Suzuki, N. and Bartneck, C. (2003) Subtle expressivity for characters and robots. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings: 1064-1065. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/765891.766150. (Conference - Published)
  • Takahashi, T., Bartneck, C. and Katagiri, Y. (2003) Show Me What You Mean - Expressive Media for Online Communities. Fort Lauderdale: CHI2003 Workshop on Subtle Expressivity of Characters and Robots, 25-6-2003. 18-21. (Conference - Other)
  • Van Breemen, A. and Bartneck, C. (2003) An emotional interface for a music gathering application. In International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Proceedings IUI: 307-309. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. (2002) eMuu - an embodied emotional character for the ambient intelligent home. (Theses / Dissertations)
  • Bartneck, C. (2002) eMuu - An InterFace for the HomeLab. Eindhoven: Philips User Interface (PUI2002), 24-6-2002. (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C. (2002) Integrating the OCC Model of Emotions in Embodied Characters. Melbourne: Workshop on Virtual Conversational Characters: Applications, Methods, and Research Challenges, 24-6-2002. (Conference - Other)
  • Breemen, A. and Bartneck, C. (2002) An Emotional Interface for a Music Gathering Application. Eindhoven: Philips User Interface Conference (PUI2002), 24-6-2002. In Philips User Interface Conference (PUI2002) http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/604045.604107. (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C. (2001) Affective expressions of machines. In Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings: 189-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/634067.634181. (Conference - Published)
  • Bartneck, C. (2001) Robofesta - Robotic User Interfaces in Japan. Symposium on Multimodal Communication with Embodied Agents CWI, Amsterdam. (Other)
  • Bartneck, C. (2001) How convincing is Mr. Data's smile: Affective expressions of machines. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 11(4): 279-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011811315582. (Journal articles)
  • Bartneck, C. and Okada, M. (2001) eMuu - An Emotional Robot. Osaka: RoboFesta Kansai, 23-6-2001. In RoboFesta Kansai (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C. and Okada, M. (2001) eMuu - An Emotional Robotic User Interface. Eindhoven: Philips User Interface Conference (UI2001), 23-6-2001. In Philips User Interface Conference (UI2001) (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C. and Okada, M. (2001) Robotic User Interfaces. Aizu: Human and Computer Conference (HC2001), 23-6-2001. In Human and Computer Conference (HC2001): 130-140. (Conference - Published)
  • Geerlings, F., Heijms, P., Oorschot, v., M, Bartneck., C, Lukkien. and J, J. (2001) Breedband Internet Radio en Video. Den Haag: ICT-Kenniscongres, 23-6-2001. In ICT-Kenniscongres (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C. (2000) Affective Expressions of Machines. (Theses / Dissertations)
  • Bartneck, C. and Diederiks, E. (2000) Affective expressions of machines. Eindhoven: Philips User Interface Conference (UI2000), 22-6-2000. In Philips User Interface Conference (UI2000) (Conference - Other)
  • Bartneck, C. (1998) Fry’s. DeBug 13 (Other)
  • Bartneck, C. (1998) The making of: Filemaker. DeBug 12 (Other)
  • Bartneck, C. (1998) Web98 - Eine Konferenz in San Francisco. DeBug 14 (Other)
  • Bartneck, C. (1997) Burning Rubber. (Theses / Dissertations)
  • Bartneck, C. (0) The 2011 LEGO Minifigure Catalog. (2nd ed.) Charleston: CreateSpace. (Authored Books)