UC SPARK - University of Canterbury - New Zealand

Professor Robert W Lindeman

Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand (HIT Lab NZ)



Phone: +64 3 364 2987 ext. 92436

Office: John Britten Building Rm 212B

Fields of Research

  • Virtual Reality
  • Augmented Reality
  • 3D User Interaction
  • Game Design and Development
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Interactive Computer Graphics
  • UX Design
  • User Experience

Researcher Summary

Virtual Reality (VR) involves immersing people in digital worlds. I am interested in supporting effective use of VR for entertainment, work, tourism, and other areas that enhance the user experience. This means doing research in 3D User Interaction (3DUI), multi-sensory feedback, and long-term immersion, all being applied to real world situations, such as training, education, and just plain fun.

My 3DUI work focuses on the main tasks people need to do in VR, including working with objects (e.g., picking things up, opening doors, and creating the worlds themselves), moving around in VR worlds (i.e., travel and finding your way), and task-specific things, like loading new models, or communicating with virtual characters).

With regard to multi-sensory cues, I have done extensive work on going beyond visual and audio feedback to providing significant touch, wearable vibration feedback, floor vibration, and even wind. I have also explored the delivery of smell cues in VR. I take a holistic approach, in that I look at all the senses in concert, as opposed to looking at them individually, because this better matches how people sense in the real world - balancing the strengths and weaknesses of each sensory system to make sense of the world.

In terms of long-term immersion in VR, it is clear that people will be spending ever-increasing hours inside VR. How can we support people getting real work done? How can we provide a good balance between expressiveness and fatigue?

Subject Area: Disciplines

Research Groups

Future Research

  • Long-term Exposure to Virtual Reality

Key Methodologies

  • Software
  • Human Factors
  • User Studies

Research/Scholarly/Creative Works

Journal Articles
  • Phillips-Grafflin C., Suay HB., Mainprice J., Alunni N., Lofaro D., Berenson D., Chernova S., Lindeman RW. and Oh P. (2016) From Autonomy to Cooperative Traded Control of Humanoid Manipulation Tasks with Unreliable Communication: Applications to the Valve-turning Task of the DARPA Robotics Challenge and Lessons Learned. Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems 82(3-4): 341-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10846-015-0256-5.
  • Lindeman RW. (2015) Novel Interfaces for Interactive Environments. Syllabus 4(1): 8.
  • de Barros PG. and Lindeman RW. (2014) Multi-Sensory Urban Search-and-Rescue Robotics: Improving the Operator's Omni-Directional Perception. Frontiers in Robotics and AI 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2014.00014.
  • Phillips-Grafflin C., Alunni N., Suay HB., Mainprice J., Lofaro D., Berenson D., Chernova S., Lindeman RW. and Oh P. (2014) Toward a user-guided manipulation framework for high-DOF robots with limited communication. Intelligent Service Robotics 7(3): 121-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11370-014-0156-8.
  • Steed A. and Lindeman RW. (2011) Guest Editor’s Introduction Special Section on the Virtual Reality Conference (VR). IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 17(1): 1-2.
  • Ozaki M., Gobeawan L., Kitaoka S., Hamazaki H., Kitamura Y. and Lindeman RW. (2010) Camera movement for chasing a subject with unknown behavior based on real-time viewpoint goodness evaluation. Visual Computer 26(6-8): 629-638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00371-010-0489-z.
  • Lindeman RW., Reiners D. and Steed A. (2009) Practicing what we preach: IEEE VR 2009 virtual program committee meeting. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 29(2): 80-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCG.2009.28.
  • Orman N., Kim NH., Sakamoto R., Toriyama T., Kogure K. and Lindeman RW. (2008) GPU-Based Optimization of a Free-Viewpoint Video System. ELCVIA Electronic Letters on Computer Vision and Image Analysis 7(2): 120-133.
  • Lindeman RW. (2006) Making VR More Usable: The State of Effectiveness in Virtual Reality. Journal of the Virtual Reality Society of Japan 11(1): 24-27.
  • Niwa M., Noma H., Yanagida Y., Hosaka K. and Lindeman RW. (2006) Controlling the Perceived Vibrational Status of the Tactor by Vibrotactile Feedback. Transactions of the Virtual Reality Society of Japan 11(1): 59-68.
  • Lindeman RW., Templeman JN., Sibert JL. and Cutler JR. (2002) Handling of virtual contact in immersive virtual environments: Beyond visuals. Virtual Reality 6(3): 130-139.
  • Kann C., Lindeman RW. and Heller R. (1997) Integrating algorithm animation into a learning environment. Computers and Education 28(4): 223-228.
Conference Contributions - Published
  • Clifford RMS., Tuanquin NMB. and Lindeman RW. (2017) Jedi ForceExtension: Telekinesis as a Virtual Reality interaction metaphor (Poster). In 3DUI 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces: 239-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2017.7893360.
  • Piumsomboon T., Lee G., Lindeman RW. and Billinghurst M. (2017) Exploring natural eye-gaze-based interaction for immersive virtual reality. In 3DUI 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces: 36-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2017.7893315.
  • Sarupuri B., Chipana ML. and Lindeman RW. (2017) Trigger Walking: A low-fatigue travel technique for immersive virtual reality (Poster). In 3DUI 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces: 227-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2017.7893354.
  • Dey A., Billinghurst M., Lindeman RW. and Swan JE. (2016) A Systematic Review of Usability Studies in Augmented Reality between 2005 and 2014 (Poster). In ISMAR 2016 - Adjunct Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISMAR-Adjunct.2016.0036.
  • Kruijff E., Marquardt A., Trepkowski C., Lindeman RW., Hinkenjann A., Maiero J. and Riecke BE. (2016) On your feet! Enhancing vection in leaning-based interfaces through multisensory stimuli. In SUI 2016 - Proceedings of the 2016 Symposium on Spatial User Interaction: 149-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2983310.2985759.
  • Lee G., Chen J., Billinghurst M. and Lindeman RW. (2016) Enhancing Immersive Cinematic Experience with Augmented Virtuality (Poster). In ISMAR 2016 - Adjunct Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality: 115-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISMAR-Adjunct.2016.0054.
  • Nassani A., Kim H., Lee G., Billinghurst M., Langlotz T. and Lindeman RW. (2016) Augmented Reality Annotation for Social Video Sharing. Macau, China: Symposium on Mobile Graphics and Interactive Applications, In SA '16 - Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ASIA 2016 - Mobile Graphics and Interactive Applications http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2999508.2999529.
  • Feng M., Lindeman RW., Abdel-Moati H. and Lindeman JC. (2015) Haptic ChairIO: A System to Study the Effect of Wind and Floor Vibration Feedback on Spatial Orientation in VEs (Poster). In 3DUI 2015 - Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2015.7131744.
  • Kruijff E., Trepkowski C. and Lindeman RW. (2015) The effect of vibration and low-frequency audio on full-body haptic sensations (Poster). In VRST 2015 - Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Virtual Reality Software and Technology http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2821592.2821626.
  • Lindeman RW., Sandor C. and Mayol-Cuevas W. (2015) Welcome Message from the ISMAR 2015 Science and Technology Program Chairs. In ISMAR 2015 - Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality: xii-xiv.
  • Liu H., Yan Z., Lindeman RW., Ding G. and Huang T. (2015) A hybrid crowd simulation framework towards modeling behavior of individual avoidance of crowds (Poster). In SCA 2015 - Proceedings of the 14th ACM SIGGRAPH / Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation: 193-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2786784.2795135.
  • Yan Z. and Lindeman RW. (2015) A multi-touch finger gesture based low-fatigue VR travel framework (Poster). In 3DUI 2015 - Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces: 193-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2015.7131766.
  • Alunni N., Bener Suay H., Phillips-Grafflin C., Mainprice J., Berenson D., Chernova S., Lindeman RW., Lofaro D. and Oh P. (2014) DARPA Robotics Challenge: Towards a user-guided manipulation framework for high-DOF robots (Poster). In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation: 2088-2088. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICRA.2014.6907141.
  • Julier S., Lindeman RW. and Sandor C. (2014) Message from the Science & Technology Paper Chairs. In ISMAR 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality: xi-xii. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISMAR.2014.6948390.
  • Mainprice J., Phillips-Grafflin C., Suay HB., Alunni N., Lofaro D., Berenson D., Chernova S., Lindeman RW. and Oh P. (2014) From autonomy to cooperative traded control of humanoid manipulation tasks with unreliable communication: System design and lessons learned. In Proceedings of the ... IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems: 3767-3774. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2014.6943091.
  • Wang J. and Lindeman RW. (2014) Coordinated 3D Interaction in Tablet- and HMD-Based Hybrid Virtual Environments. In SUI 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction: 70-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2659766.2659777.
  • Alunni N., Phillips-Grafflin C., Suay HB., Lofaro D., Berenson D., Chernova S., Lindeman RW. and Oh P. (2013) Toward a user-guided manipulation framework for high-DOF robots with limited communication. In IEEE Conference on Technologies for Practical Robot Applications, TePRA http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TePRA.2013.6556356.
  • De Barros PG. and Lindeman RW. (2013) Performance effects of multi-sensory displays in virtual teleoperation environments. In SUI 2013 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction: 41-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2491367.2491371.
  • Lindeman RW. and Lee G. (2013) GeoBoids: Mobile AR for exergaming (Poster). In NZCHI 2013 - Proceedings of the 2013 International Conf. of the NZ Chapter of the ACM's SIGCHI: 100-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2379256.2379284.
  • Wang J. and Lindeman RW. (2013) ForceExtension: Extending isotonic position-controlled multi-touch gestures with rate-controlled force sensing for 3D manipulation. In 3DUI 2013 - Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces: 3-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2013.6550188.
  • Wang J., Leach O. and Lindeman RW. (2013) DIY World Builder: An immersive level-editing system (Poster). In 3DUI 2013 - Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces: 195-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2013.6550245.
  • De Barros PG. and Lindeman RW. (2012) Comparing vibro-tactile feedback modes for collision proximity feedback in USAR virtual robot teleoperation (Poster). In 3DUI 2012 - Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces: 137-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2012.6184199.
  • Lindeman RW., Lee G., Beattie L., Gamper H., Pathinarupothi R. and Akhilesh A. (2012) GeoBoids: A mobile AR application for exergaming (Poster). In ISMAR 2012 - Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality - Arts, Media, and Humanities Papers: 93-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISMAR-AMH.2012.6483997.
  • Wang J. and Lindeman RW. (2012) Comparing isometric and elastic surfboard interfaces for leaning-based travel in 3D virtual environments. In 3DUI 2012 - Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces: 31-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2012.6184181.
  • Wang J. and Lindeman RW. (2012) Leaning-based travel interfaces revisited: Frontal versus sidewise stances for flying in 3D virtual spaces. In VRST 2012 - Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technolog: 121-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2407336.2407360.
  • De Barros PG., Lindeman RW. and Ward MO. (2011) Enhancing robot teleoperator situation awareness and performance using vibro-tactile and graphical feedback. In 3DUI 2011 - IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces 2011, Proceedings: 47-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2011.5759216.
  • De Barros PG., Rolleston RJ. and Lindeman RW. (2011) Evaluation of multi-touch techniques for physically simulated virtual object manipulations in 3D space. In HCI 2011 - Proceedings of the 2011 IASTED International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: 68-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.2316/P.2011.747-037.
  • Ohnishi T., Lindeman R. and Kiyokawa K. (2011) Multiple multi-touch touchpads for 3D selection (Poster). In 3DUI 2011 - Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces: 115-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2011.5759232.
  • Wang J. and Lindeman RW. (2011) Isometric versus elastic surfboard interfaces for locomotion in virtual reality. In HCI 2011 - Proceedings of the 2011 IASTED International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: 40-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.2316/P.2011.747-007.
  • Wang J. and Lindeman RW. (2011) Silver Surfer: A system to compare isometric and elastic board interfaces for locomotion in VR (Poster). In 3DUI 2011 - Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces: 121-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2011.5759235.
  • de Barros PG., Lindeman RW. and Loughlin TJ. (2009) Characterizing Head Movement in First Person Games (Poster). In I3D 2009 - Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games
  • De Barros PG., Lindeman RW. and Loughlin TJ. (2009) Head-movement evaluation for first-person games (Work-in-Progress Report). In In CHI 2009 - Proceedings of the 2009 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1520340.1520673.
  • de Barros PG., Lindeman RW. and Ward M. (2009) Evaluation of Tactile Feedback for Teleoperated Robots (Poster). In I3D 2009 - Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games
  • Hamazaki H., Kitaoka S., Ozaki M., Kitamura Y., Lindeman RW. and Kishino F. (2009) Collision Free Chase Camera Movement in a 3D Virtual Environment (Poster). In I3D 2009 - Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games
  • Lima JP., Teichrieb V., Kelner J. and Lindeman RW. (2009) Standalone edge-based markerless tracking of fully 3-dimensional objects for handheld augmented reality. In VRST 2009 - Proceedings of the 2009 ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology: 139-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1643928.1643960.
  • Lindeman RW. and Beckhaus S. (2009) Crafting memorable VR experiences using experiential fidelity. In VRST 2009 - Proceedings of the 2009 ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology: 187-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1643928.1643970.
  • Niwa M., Lindeman RW., Itoh Y. and Kishino F. (2009) Determining appropriate parameters to elicit linear and circular apparent motion using vibrotactile cues. In World Haptics 2009 - Proceedings of the 2009 Joint EuroHaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems: 75-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WHC.2009.4810856.
  • Hamazaki H., Kitaoka S., Ozaki M., Kitamura Y., Lindeman RW. and Kishino F. (2008) Extracting camera-control requirements and camera movement generation in a 3D virtual environment. In ACE 2008 - Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 126-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1501750.1501779.
  • Lindeman RW., Noma H. and De Barros PG. (2008) An empirical study of hear-through augmented reality: Using bone conduction to deliver spatialized audio. In IEEE VR 2008 - Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference: 35-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VR.2008.4480747.
  • Orman N., Kim H., Sakamoto R., Toriyama T., Kogure K. and Lindeman RW. (2008) GPU Optimization of a Free-Viewpoint Video System (Poster). In I3D 2008 - Proceedings of the 2008 ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games
  • Chang C-H., Lohrmann P., Agu E. and Lindeman RW. (2007) ENCORE: Energy-Conscious Rendering for Mobile Devices. In GPGPU 2007 - First Workshop on General Purpose Processing on Graphics Processing Units
  • Lindeman RW. and Noma H. (2007) A classification scheme for multi-sensory augmented reality. In VRST 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology: 175-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1315184.1315216.
  • Lindeman RW., Noma H. and De Barros PG. (2007) Hear-through and mic-through augmented reality: Using bone conduction to display spatialized audio. In ISMAR 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality: 173-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISMAR.2007.4538843.
  • Razzaq L., Heffernan NT. and Lindeman RW. (2007) What Level of Tutor Interaction is Best? In Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications: 222-229.
  • Kohli L., Niwa M., Noma H., Susami K., Yanagida Y., Lindeman RW., Hosaka K. and Kume Y. (2006) Towards effective information display using vibrotactile apparent motion. In HAPTICS 2006 - Proceedings of 2006 Symposium on Haptics Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems: 445-451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HAPTIC.2006.1627115.
  • Lindeman RW., Yanagida Y., Hosaka K. and Abe S. (2006) The TactaPack: A wireless sensor/actuator package for physical therapy applications. In HAPTICS 2006 - Proceedings of 2006 Symposium on Haptics Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems 2006: 337-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VR.2006.130.
  • Niwa M., Noma H., Yanagida Y., Hosaka K. and Lindeman RW. (2006) Controlling the perceived vibrational frequency and amplitude of a voice-coil-type tactor. In HAPTICS 2006 - Proceedings of 2006 Symposium on Haptics Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems: 55-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VR.2006.39.
  • Noma H., Hashida Y., Yanagida Y., Lindeman RW., Susami K., Hosaka K. and Kume Y. (2006) A Study of Mounting Methods for Tactors Using an Elastic Polymer. In HAPTICS 2006 - Proceedings of 2006 Symposium on Haptics Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems: 343-345.
  • Sibert JL., Cooper J., Corvington C., Stefanovski A., Thompson D. and Lindeman RW. (2006) Vibrotactile Feedback for Enhanced Control of Urban Search and Rescue Robots. Gaithersburg, MD: In Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE Symposium on Safety, Security and Rescue Robots
  • Cohen J., Niwa M., Lindeman RW., Noma H., Yanagida Y. and Hosaka K. (2005) A closed-loop tactor frequency control system for vibrotactile feedback (Poster). In CHI 2005 - Proceedings of the 2005 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: 1296-1299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1056808.1056900.
  • Gievska S., Lindeman RW. and Sibert JL. (2005) Examining the Qualitative Gains of Mediating Human Interruptions During HCI. In HCII 2005 - Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
  • Lindeman RW., Page R., Sibert JL. and Templeman JN. (2005) Using Vibrotactile Cues for Virtual Contact and Data Display in Tandem. In HCII 2005 - Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
  • Lindeman RW., Sibert JL., Mendez-Mendez E., Patil S. and Phifer D. (2005) Effectiveness of directional vibrotactile cuing on a building-clearing task. In Cost Engineering -Ann Arbor then Morgantown-: 271-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1054972.1055010.
  • Lindeman RW., Yanagida Y., Noma H., Hosaka KI. and Kuwabara K. (2005) Design of a wireless tactor system for haptic feedback in virtual reality (Poster). In IEEE VR 2005 - Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference: 285-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VR.2005.28.
  • Mendez E., Yoshida S., Noma H., Lindeman RW., Yanagida Y., Masaki S. and Hosaka K. (2005) Haptic-assisted guidance system for navigating volumetric data sets. In World Haptics 2005 - Proceedings of the 2005 Joint EuroHaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems: 531-534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WHC.2005.70.
  • Hernandez-Rebollar JL., Kyriakopoulos N. and Lindeman RW. (2004) A new instrumented approach for translating American Sign Language into sound and text. In FG 2004 - Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition: 547-552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AFGR.2004.1301590.
  • Lindeman RW. (2004) Virtual Contact: The Continuum from Purely Visual to Purely Physical. In HFES 2003 - Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society: 2103-2107.
  • Lindeman RW., Page R., Yanagida Y. and Sibert JL. (2004) Towards full-body haptic feedback: The design and deployment of a spatialized vibrotactile feedback system. In VRST 2004 - Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Virtual Reality Software and Technology: 146-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1077534.1077562.
  • Lindeman RW., Sibert JL., Lathan CE. and Vice JM. (2004) The design and deployment of a wearable vibrotactile feedback system. In Proceedings - International Symposium on Wearable Computers, ISWC: 56-59.
  • Rosen N., Sattar R., Lindeman RW., Simha R. and Narahari B. (2004) HomeOS: Context-aware home connectivity. In PCC04 - Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications: 739-744.
  • Yanagida Y., Kakita M., Lindeman RW., Kume Y. and Tetsutani N. (2004) Vibrotactile letter reading using a low-resolution tactor array. In HAPTICS 2004 - Proceedings of 2004 Symposium on Haptics Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems: 400-406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HAPTIC.2004.1287227.
  • Lindeman RW. and Cutler JR. (2003) Controller design for a wearable, near-field haptic display. In HAPTICS 2003 - Proceedings of 2003 Symposium on Haptics Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems: 397-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HAPTIC.2003.1191323.
  • Lindeman RW. and Yanagida Y. (2003) Empirical studies for effective near-field haptics in virtual environments (Poster). In IEEE VR 2003 - Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference: 287-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VR.2003.1191166.
  • Lindeman RW., Yanagida Y., Sibert JL. and Lavine R. (2003) Effective Vibrotactile Cueing in a Visual Search Task. In INTERACT 2003 - Proceedings of the Ninth IFIP TC13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: 89-96.
  • Hernandez-Rebollar JL., Kyriakopoulos N. and Lindeman RW. (2002) The AcceleGlove: A whole-hand input device for virtual reality (Poster). In SIGGRAPH 2002 - Proceedings of 2002 ACM SIGGRAPH - Conference Abstracts and Applications: 259-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1242073.1242272.
  • Hernandez-Rebollar JL., Lindeman RW. and Kyriakopoulos N. (2002) A multi-class pattern recognition system for practical finger spelling translation. In ICMI 2002 - Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces: 185-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICMI.2002.1166990.
  • Lindeman RW. and Templeman JN. (2001) Vibrotactile Feedback for Handling Virtual Contact in Immersive Virtual Environments. In HCII 2001 - Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: 21-25.
  • Lindeman RW., Sibert JL. and Templeman JN. (2001) The effect of 3D widget representation and simulated surface constraints on interaction in virtual environments. In IEEE VR 2001 - Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference: 141-148.
  • Yamashita J., Lindeman RW., Fukui Y., Morikawa O. and Sato S. (2000) On Determining the Haptic Smoothness of Force-Shaded Surfaces (Poster). In SIGGRAPH 2000 - Proceedings of 2000 ACM SIGGRAPH - Conference Abstracts and Applications
  • Lindeman RW., Sibert JL. and Hahn JK. (1999) Hand-held windows: Towards effective 2D interaction in immersive virtual environments. In IEEE VR 1999 - Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference: 205-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VR.1999.756952.
  • Lindeman RW., Sibert JL. and Hahn JK. (1999) Towards usable VR: An empirical study of user interfaces for lmmersive virtual environments. In CHI 1999 - Proceedings of the 1999 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: 64-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/302979.302995.
  • Voss G., Hahn JK., Muller W. and Lindeman RW. (1999) Virtual Cutting of Anatomical Structures. In MMVR 99 - Proceedings of 1999 Medicine Meets Virtual Reality
  • Hahn JK., Kaufman RE., Winick A., Park Y., Lindeman RW., Oh K-M., Walsh R., Al-Ghreimil N., Carleton T. and Loew MH. (1998) Training Environment for Inferior Vena Caval Filter Placement. In MMVR 98 - Proceedings of 1998 Medicine Meets Virtual Reality
  • Yamashita J., Yi C., Lindeman RW., Fukui Y. and Morikawa O. (1998) Plane-shape perception using point-contact type force feedback device (Poster). In SIGGRAPH 98 - Proceedings of 1998 ACM SIGGRAPH - Conference Abstracts and Applications: 274-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/280953.282246.
  • Park Y., Lindeman RW. and Hahn JK. (1996) X-Ray Casting: Fast Volume Visualization Using 2D Texture Mapping Techniques (Poster). In VIS 96 - Late Breaking Hot Topics, 1996 IEEE Visualization Conference
Edited Volumes
  • Lindeman RW; Steinicke F; Thomas B (Ed.) (2015) 3DUI 2015 - Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces.
  • Sandor C; Lindeman RW; Mayol-Cuevas W (Ed.) (2015) ISMAR 2015 - Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (Science & Technology Program).
  • Julier S; Lindeman RW; Sandor C (Ed.) (2014) ISMAR 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (Science & Technology Program).
  • Lecuyer A; Lindeman RW; Steinicke F (Ed.) (2014) 3DUI 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces.
  • Steed A; Reiners D; Lindeman RW (Ed.) (2009) IEEE VR 2009 - Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference.
  • Saito H; Yanagida Y; Lindeman RW (Ed.) (2008) ICAT 2008 - Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence. The Virtual Reality Society of Japan.
Chapters Reports
  • de Barros PG. and Lindeman RW. (2009) A Survey of User Interfaces for Robot Teleoperation. In Technical Report Series, WPI-CS-TR-09-12, Computer Science Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute., 53.
  • de Barros PG., Lindeman RW. and Ward MO. (2009) A Multi-sensorial HRI Interface for Teleoperated Robots. In Technical Report Series, WPI-CS-TR-09-09, Computer Science Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 54.
  • Lindsay C., Lindeman RW. and Agu E. (2009) Interface Design For Programmable Cameras. In Technical Report Series, WPI-CS-TR-09-10, Computer Science Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute.