UC SPARK - University of Canterbury - New Zealand

Professor Jason Tylianakis

Biological Sciences

Fields of Research

  • Conservation on managed land
  • Ecological aspects of biological control
  • Ecological processes across multiple spatiotemporal scales
  • Effect of land use (especially agriculture) & global change on biodiversity & ecosystems
  • Food web ecology
  • Hymenoptera ecology & parasitoid-host interactions
  • Invasive species impacts

Researcher Summary

Research interests include:
- Effects of land use (especially agriculture) and global change phenomena on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning
- Ecological processes across multiple spatiotemporal scales
- Invasive species impacts in anthropogenic habitats
- Conservation on managed land
- Hymenoptera ecology and parasitoid-host interactions
- Ecological aspects of biological control
- Food web ecology

Subject Area: Disciplines


Prizes and Awards

  • Rutherford Discovery ( 2011 - 2015)

Research/Scholarly/Creative Works

Journal Articles
  • Broussard MA., Mas F., Howlett B., Pattemore D. and Tylianakis JM. (2017) Possible mechanisms of pollination failure in hybrid carrot seed and implications for industry in a changing climate. PLoS ONE 12(6) http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180215.
  • Hudson LN., Newbold T., Contu S., Hill SLL., Lysenko I., De Palma A., Phillips HRP., Alhusseini TI., Bedford FE. and Bennett DJ. (2017) The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project. Ecology and Evolution 7(1): 145-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2579.
  • Peralta G., Frost CM., Didham RK., Rand TA. and Tylianakis JM. (2017) Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy. Ecology 98(4): 995-1005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1656.
  • Peralta G., Frost CM., Didham RK., Rand TA. and Tylianakis JM. (2017) Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy. Ecology 98(4): 995-1005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1656/suppinfo.
  • Bartomeus I., Gravel D., Tylianakis JM., Aizen MA., Dickie IA. and Bernard-Verdier M. (2016) A common framework for identifying linkage rules across different types of interactions. Functional Ecology 30(12): 1894-1903. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12666.
  • Bell T. and Tylianakis JM. (2016) Microbes in the anthropocene: Spillover of agriculturally selected bacteria and their impact on natural ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 283(1844) http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.0896.
  • Coux C., Rader R., Bartomeus I., Tylianakis JM. and Mouillot D. (2016) Linking species functional roles to their network roles. Ecology Letters 19(7): 762-770. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.12612.
  • De Palma A., Abrahamczyk S., Aizen MA., Albrecht M., Basset Y., Bates A., Blake RJ., Boutin C., Bugter R. and Connop S. (2016) Predicting bee community responses to land-use changes: Effects of geographic and taxonomic biases. Scientific Reports 6 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep31153.
  • Emer C., Memmott J., Vaughan IP., Montoya D. and Tylianakis JM. (2016) Species roles in plant–pollinator communities are conserved across native and alien ranges. Diversity and Distributions 22(8): 841-852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12458.
  • Frost CM., Peralta G., Rand TA., Didham RK., Varsani A. and Tylianakis JM. (2016) Apparent competition drives community-wide parasitism rates and changes in host abundance across ecosystem boundaries. Nature Communications 7 12644 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12644.
  • Rohr RP., Saavedra S., Peralta G., Frost CM., Bersier LF., Bascompte J. and Tylianakis JM. (2016) Persist or produce: A community trade-off tuned by species evenness. American Naturalist 188(4): 411-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/688046.
  • Didham RK., Barker GM., Bartlam S., Deakin EL., Denmead LH., Fisk LM., Peters JMR., Tylianakis JM., Wright HR. and Schipper LA. (2015) Agricultural intensification exacerbates spillover effects on soil biogeochemistry in adjacent forest remnants. PLoS ONE 10(1) http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116474.
  • Frost CM., Didham RK., Rand TA., Peralta G. and Tylianakis JM. (2015) Community-level net spillover of natural enemies from managed to natural forest. Ecology 96(1): 193-202.
  • Macfadyen S., Tylianakis JM., Letourneau DK., Benton TG., Tittonell P., Perring MP., Gómez-Creutzberg C., Báldi A., Holland JM. and Broadhurst L. (2015) The role of food retailers in improving resilience in global food supply. Global Food Security 7: 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.01.001.
  • Martínez-García LB., Richardson SJ., Tylianakis JM., Peltzer DA. and Dickie IA. (2015) Host identity is a dominant driver of mycorrhizal fungal community composition during ecosystem development. New Phytologist 205(4): 1565-1576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.13226.
  • Peralta G., Frost CM., Didham RK., Varsani A. and Tylianakis JM. (2015) Phylogenetic diversity and co-evolutionary signals among trophic levels change across a habitat edge. Journal of Animal Ecology 84(2): 364-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12296.
  • García D., Martínez D., Stouffer DB. and Tylianakis JM. (2014) Exotic birds increase generalization and compensate for native bird decline in plant-frugivore assemblages. Journal of Animal Ecology 83(6): 1441-1450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12237.
  • Goldson SL., Wratten SD., Ferguson CM., Gerard PJ., Barratt BIP., Hardwick S., McNeill MR., Phillips CB., Popay AJ. and Tylianakis JM. (2014) If and when successful classical biological control fails. Biological Control 72: 76-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2014.02.012.
  • Graham SL., Hunt JE., Millard P., McSeveny T., Tylianakis JM. and Whitehead D. (2014) Effects of soil warming and nitrogen addition on soil respiration in a New Zealand tussock grassland. PLoS ONE 9(3) http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091204.
  • Hudson LN., Newbold T., Contu S., Hill SLL., Lysenko I., De Palma A., Phillips HRP., Senior RA., Bennett DJ. and Booth H. (2014) The PREDICTS database: a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts. Ecology and Evolution 4(24): 4701-4735. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1303.
  • Peralta G., Frost CM., Rand TA., Didham RK. and Tylianakis JM. (2014) Complementarity and redundancy of interactions enhance attack rates and spatial stability in host-parasitoid food webs. Ecology 95(7): 1888-1896. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-1569.1.
  • Pfeifer M., Lefebvre V., Gardner TA., Arroyo-Rodriguez V., Baeten L., Banks-Leite C., Barlow J., Betts MG., Brunet J. and Cerezo A. (2014) BIOFRAG - a new database for analyzing BIOdiversity responses to forest FRAGmentation. Ecology and Evolution 4(9): 1524-1537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1036.
  • Rader R., Bartomeus I., Tylianakis JM. and Laliberté E. (2014) The winners and losers of land use intensification: Pollinator community disassembly is non-random and alters functional diversity. Diversity and Distributions 20(8): 908-917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12221.
  • Dickie IA., Martínez-García LB., Koele N., Grelet GA., Tylianakis JM., Peltzer DA. and Richardson SJ. (2013) Mycorrhizas and mycorrhizal fungal communities throughout ecosystem development. Plant and Soil 367(1-2): 11-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-013-1609-0.
  • Eklöf A., Jacob U., Kopp J., Bosch J., Castro-Urgal R., Chacoff NP., Dalsgaard B., de Sassi C., Galetti M. and Guimarães PR. (2013) The dimensionality of ecological networks. Ecology Letters 16(5): 577-583. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.12081.
  • Gornish ES. and Tylianakis JM. (2013) Community shifts under climate change: Mechanisms at multiple scales. American Journal of Botany 100(7): 1422-1434. http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1300046.
  • Kross SM., Tylianakis JM. and Nelson XJ. (2013) Diet composition and prey choice of New Zealand falcons nesting in anthropogenic and natural habitats. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 37(1): 51-59.
  • Laliberté E., Lambers H., Norton DA., Tylianakis JM. and Huston MA. (2013) A long-term experimental test of the dynamic equilibrium model of species diversity. Oecologia 171(2): 439-448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-012-2417-6.
  • Lavandero B. and Tylianakis JM. (2013) Genotype matching in a parasitoid-host genotypic food web: An approach for measuring effects of environmental change. Molecular Ecology 22(1): 229-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.12100.
  • Tylianakis JM. (2013) The Global Plight of Pollinators. The Scientific monthly 339(6127): 1532-1533.
  • Aizen MA., Sabatino M. and Tylianakis JM. (2012) Specialization and Rarity Predict Nonrandom Loss of Interactions from Mutualist Networks. Science 335(6075): 1486-1489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1215320.
  • de Sassi C., Lewis OT. and Tylianakis JM. (2012) Plant-mediated and nonadditive effects of two global change drivers on an insect herbivore community. Ecology 93(8): 1892-1901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/11-1839.1.
  • de Sassi C., Staniczenko PPA. and Tylianakis JM. (2012) Warming and nitrogen affect size structuring and density dependence in a host-parasitoid food web. Philosophical Transactions B: Biological Sciences 367(1605): 3033-3041. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0233.
  • Hagen M., Kissling WD., Rasmussen C., DeAguiar MAM., Brown L., Carstensen DW., Alves-dos-Santos I., Dupont YL., Edwards FK. and Genini J. (2012) Biodiversity, species interactions and ecological networks in a fragmented world. Advances in Ecological Research 46: 89-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-396992-7.00002-2.
  • Hoover SER., Ladley JJ., Shchepetkina AA., Tisch M., Gieseg SP. and Tylianakis JM. (2012) Warming, CO2, and nitrogen deposition interactively affect a plant-pollinator mutualism. Ecology Letters 15(3): 227-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01729.x.
  • Kross SM., Tylianakis JM. and Nelson XJ. (2012) Effects of Introducing Threatened Falcons into Vineyards on Abundance of Passeriformes and Bird Damage to Grapes. Conservation Biology 26(1): 142-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01756.x.
  • Kross SM., Tylianakis JM. and Nelson XJ. (2012) Translocation of threatened New Zealand Falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates. PLoS ONE 7(6) e386979 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038679.
  • Laliberté E. and Tylianakis J. (2012) Cascading effects of long-term land use changes on plant traits and ecosystem functioning. Ecology 93(1): 145-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/11-0338.1.
  • Thompson RM., Brose U., Dunne JA., Hall Jr RO., Hladyz S., Kitching RL., Martinez ND., Rantala H., Romanuk TN. and Stouffer DB. (2012) Food webs: reconciling the structure and function of biodiversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 27(12): 689-697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.08.005.
  • Tscharntke T., Tylianakis JM., Rand RA., Didham RK., Fahrig L., Batáry P., Bengtsson J., Clough Y., Crist TO. and Dormann CF. (2012) Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses. Biological Reviews 87(3): 661-685. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2011.00216.x.
  • Teodoro AV., Muñoz A., Tscharntke T., Klein AM. and Tylianakis JM. (2011) Early succession arthropod community changes on experimental passion fruit plant patches along a land-use gradient in Ecuador. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 140(1-2): 14-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.11.006.
  • Thompson ID., Okabe K., Tylianakis JM., Kumar P., Brockerhoff EG., Schellhorn NA., Parrotta JA. and Nasi R. (2011) Forest biodiversity and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services: translating science into policy. BioScience 61(12): 972-981. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.12.7.
  • Laliberté E., Norton DA., Tylianakis JM. and Scott D. (2010) Comparison of two sampling methods for quantifying changes in vegetation composition under rangeland development. Rangeland Ecology and Management 63(5): 537-545. http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-09-00156.1.
  • Steeves TE., Maloney RF., Hale ML., Tylianakis JM. and Gemmell NJ. (2010) Genetic analyses reveal hybridization but no hybrid swarm in one of the world's rarest birds. Molecular Ecology 19(23): 5090-5100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04895.x.
  • Veddeler D., Tylianakis J., Tscharntke T. and Klein AM. (2010) Natural enemy diversity reduces temporal variability in wasp but not bee parasitism. Oecologia 162(3): 755-762. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-009-1491-x.
  • Bos MM., Tylianakis JM., Steffan-Dewenter I. and Tscharntke T. (2008) The invasive Yellow Crazy Ant and the decline of forest ant diversity in Indonesian cacao agroforests. Biological Invasions 10(8): 1399-1409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-008-9215-4.
  • Hoehn P., Tscharntke T., Tylianakis JM. and Steffan-Dewenter I. (2008) Functional group diversity of bee pollinators increases crop yield. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275: 2283-2291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.0405.
  • Tscharntke T., Bommarco R., Clough Y., Crist TO., Kleijn D., Rand TA., Tylianakis JM., Nouhuys SV. and Vidal S. (2008) Reprint of "Conservation biological control and enemy diversity on a landscape scale" [Biol. Control 43 (2007) 294-309]. Biological Control 45(2): 238-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1049-9644(08)00082-0.
  • Tscharntke T., Sekercioglu CH., Dietsch TV., Sodhi NS., Hoehn P. and Tylianakis JM. (2008) Landscape constraints on functional diversity of birds and insects in a tropical agroecosystem (vol 89, pg 944, 2008). Ecology 89(6)
  • Tscharntke T., Sekercioglu CH., Dietsch TV., Sodhi NS., Hoehn P. and Tylianakis JM. (2008) Landscape constraints on functional diversity of birds and insects in tropical agroecosystems. Ecology 89(4): 944-951. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/07-0455.1.
  • Tylianakis JM., Rand TA., Kahmen A., Klein AM., Buchmann N., Perner J. and Tscharntke T. (2008) Resource heterogeneity moderates the biodiversity-function relationship in real world ecosystems. PLoS Biology 6(5) e122 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060122.
  • Bos MM., Veddeler D., Bogdanski AK., Klein AM., Tscharntke T., Steffan-Dewenter I. and Tylianakis JM. (2007) Caveats to quantifying ecosystem services: Fruit abortion blurs benefits from crop pollination. Ecological Applications 17(6): 1841-1849. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/06-1763.1.
  • Bos MM., Veddeler D., Bogdanski AK., Klein AM., Tscharntke T., Steffan-Dewenter I. and Tylianakis JM. (2007) Caveats to quantifying ecosystem services: fruit abortion blurs benefits from crop pollination. Ecological Applications 17(6): 1841-1849. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ESA.
  • Didham RK., Tylianakis JM., Gemmell NJ., Rand TA. and Ewers RM. (2007) Interactive effects of habitat modification and species invasion on native species decline. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22(9): 489-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2007.07.001.
  • Richter A., Klein AM., Tscharntke T. and Tylianakis JM. (2007) Abandonement of coffee agroforests increases insect abundance and diversity. Agroforestry Systems 69(3): 175-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10457-006-9020-y.
  • Tscharntke T., Bommarco R., Clough Y., Crist TO., Kleijn D., Rand TA., Tylianakis JM., van Nouhuys S. and Vidal S. (2007) Conservation biological control and enemy diversity on a landscape scale. Biological Control 43: 294-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2007.08.006.
  • Tylianakis JM., Tscharntke T. and Lewis OT. (2007) Habitat modification alters the structure of tropical host-parasitoid food webs. Nature: New biology 455: 202-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05429.
  • Irvin NA., Scarratt SL., Wratten SD., Frampton CM., Chapman RB. and Tylianakis JM. (2006) The effects of floral understoreys on parasitism of leafrollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on apples in New Zealand. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 8(1): 25-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-9555.2006.00285.x.
  • Rand TA., Tylianakis JM. and Tscharntke T. (2006) Spillover edge effects: the dispersal of agriculturally subsidized insect natural enemies into adjacent natural habitats. Ecology Letters 9(5): 603-614. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00911.x.
  • Tylianakis JM., Klein AM., Lozada T. and Tscharntke T. (2006) Spatial scale of observation affects α, β and γ diversity of cavity-nesting bees and wasps across a tropical land-use gradient. Journal of Biogeography 33(7): 1295-1304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01493.x.
  • Didham RK., Tylianakis JM., Hutchison MA., Ewers RM. and Gemmell NJ. (2005) Are invasive species the drivers of ecological change? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 470-474.
  • Ewers RM., Didham RK., Wratten SD. and Tylianakis JM. (2005) Remotely sensed landscape heterogeneity as a rapid tool for assessing local biodiversity value in a highly modified New Zealand landscape. Biodiversity and Conservation 14(6): 1469-1485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-004-9786-z.
  • Tylianakis JM., Klein AM. and Tscharntke T. (2005) Spatiotemporal variation in the diversity of Hymenoptera across a tropical habitat gradient. Ecology 86(12): 3296-3302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/05-0371.
  • Tylianakis J., Veddeler D., Lozada T., López RM., BenÍtez P., Klein AM., de Koning GHJ., Olschewski R., Veldkamp E. and Navarrete H. (2004) Biodiversity of land-use systems in coastal Ecuador and bioindication using trap-nesting bees, wasps, and their natural enemies. Lyonia 6(2): 7-15.
  • Tylianakis JM., Didham RK. and Wratten SD. (2004) Improved fitness of aphid parasitoids receiving resource subsidies. Ecology 85(3): 658-666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/03-0222.
  • Kean J., Wratten S., Tylianakis J. and Barlow N. (2003) The population consequences of natural enemy enhancement, and implications for conservation biological control. Ecology Letters 6(7): 604-612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00468.x.
  • Wratten SD., Bowie MH., Hickman JM., Evans AM., Sedcole JR. and Tylianakis JM. (2003) Field boundaries as barriers to movement of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in cultivated land. Oecologia 134(4): 605-611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-002-1128-9.
  • Wratten SD., Lavandero BI., Tylianakis J., Vattala D., Çilgi T. and Sedcole R. (2003) Effects of flowers on parasitoid longevity and fecundity. New Zealand Plant Protection 56: 239-245.
  • Bowie MH., Wratten SD. and Tylianakis JM. (2002) An introduction to entomological research on Kowhai Farm - The Heinz Wattie's Organic Farm at Lincoln University. The Weta 25(1): 18-23.
  • Tylianakis JM. and Soper EJ. (2013) Assessing Cumulative Risks to Ecosystem Function. Expectations and Realities of Environmental Change Interaction Effects.. Climate Vulnerability: Understanding and Addressing Threats to Essential Resources: 229-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384703-4.00432-9.
  • Snyder WE. and Tylianakis JM. (2012) The ecology of biodiversity: Biocontrol relationships. In Gurr GM; Waratten SD; Snyder WE; Read DMY (Ed.), Biodiversity and Insect Pests: Key Issues for Sustainable Management: 21-40. Chichester: Wiley & Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118231838.ch2.
  • Tscharntke T., Tylianakis JM., Wade MR., Wratten SD., Bengtsson J. and Kleijn D. (2007) Insect conservation in agricultural landscapes. Insect Conservation Biology: Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society's 23rd Symposium: 383-404.
  • Wratten SD., Gurr GM., Tylianakis JM. and Robinson KA. (2007) Cultural control. Aphids as Crop Pests: 423-445.
  • Wratten SD., Hochuli DF., Gurr GM., Tylianakis J. and Scarratt SL. (2007) Conservation, biodiversity, and integrated pest management. Perspectives in Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management: 223-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752353.008.
  • Gurr GM., Wratten SD., Tylianakis J., Kean J. and Keller M. (2005) Providing plant foods for insect natural enemies in farming systems: balancing practicalities and theory. In Wackers FL; van Rijn PCJ; Bruin J (Ed.), Plant-provided food for carnivorous insects: a protective mutualism and its applications: 326-347. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511542220.012.
  • Tylianakis J., Wratten SD. and Gurr GM. (2005) Insect Interactions with Other Pests (Weeds, Pathogens, Nematodes). In Goodman RM (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Plant and Crop Science (1st ed.) New York: Taylor & Francis. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/E-EPCS-120010495.
  • Lavandero BI., Wratten SD., Hagler J. and Tylianakis J. (2004) Marking and tracking techniques for insect predators and parasitoids in ecological engineering. In Gurr G; Wratten SD; Altieri M (Ed.), Ecological Engineering for Pest Management: Advances in Habitat Manipulation for Arthropods: 117-131. Sydney: CSIRO Publishing.
Conference Contributions - Published
  • Tylianakis JM. (2010) Ensuring food production: native biodiversity provides pollination and biological control services. Tokyo, Japan: Symposium for the Convention on Biological Diversity: The role of forest biodiversity in the sustainable use of ecosystem goods and services in agro-forestry, fisheries, and forestry, 26-28 Apr 2010. : 20-28. http://www.ffpri.affrc.go.jp/en/symposium/20100426/documents/proceedings.pdf.
  • Wratten S., Berndt L., Gurr G., Tylianakis J., Fernando P. and Didham R. (2002) Adding floral diversity to enhance parasitoid fitness and efficacy. Honolulu, HI, USA: 1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, 14 Jan 2002. : 211-214.
Theses / Dissertations
  • Tylianakis JM. (2003) Ecological enhancement of an aphid parasitoid. Christchurch, New Zealand. University of Canterbury.
Additional Publications
  • Thompson ID., Ferreira J., Gardner T., Guariguata M., Koh LP., Okabe K., Pan Y., Schmitt CB., Tylianakis JM. and Barlow J. (2012) Forest biodiversity, carbon and other ecosystem services: relationships and impacts of deforestation and forest degradation.Commissioned by Global Forest Expert Panel on Biodiversity, Forest Management, and REDD+. 161pp.