Journal articles

Important elements

  • Author (Last name, initials)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of article (capitalise only the first word of title and of subtitle and any proper nouns)
  • Title of publication in italics
  • Volume number in italics. Issue number only if each issue of the journal begins on page 1 (APA Style Blog)
  • Page numbers of article
  • DOI for print articles if given in the article
    DOI for articles viewed online or, if there is no DOI assigned, the URL for the journal homepage

Print journal articles

In-text citation

According to Bourke and Loveridge (2014) ... OR
Research indicates ... (Bourke & Loveridge, 2014).

Reference list

Bourke, R., & Loveridge, J. (2014). Exposing the divide between assessment and the point of learning through student voice. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 49, 149–161.

Electronic journal articles

Journal articles with DOI

Provide the article DOI (Digital Object Identifier). This usually appears on the first page of the article or search Crossref.org, e.g.

Kacmar, K. M., Andrews, M. C., Harris, K. J., & Tepper, B. J. (2013). Ethical leadership and subordinate outcomes: The mediating role of organizational politics and the moderating role of political skill. Journal of Business Ethics, 115, 33–44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1373-8


Journal articles with no DOI

Provide the homepage URL of the journal. If you are accessing the article from a database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate this URL, e.g.

Beaudoin, K. M., Knuth, R., & Benner, G. J. (2008). Social validation of services for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders: A comparative study. International Journal of Special Education, 23(1), 1–7. Retrieved from http://www.internationaljournalofspecialeducation.com/

Other examples