Journal articles

Important elements

  • Author (Last name, initials)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of article (capitalise only the first word of title and subtitle and proper nouns)
  • Title of publication in italics
  • Volume number in italics and issue number, if each issue of the journal begins on page 1 (APA Style Blog)
  • Page numbers of article
  • DOI if you viewed the article online or URL for journal if there is no DOI

In-text citation

According to Colrain and Baker (2011) ... OR
Research indicates ... (Colrain & Baker, 2011)

Reference list

Colrain, I. M., & Baker, F. C. (2011). Changes in sleep as a function of adolescent development. Neuropsychology Review, 21, 5–21.

Electronic journals

Journal articles with DOI

Provide the article DOI (Digital Object Identifier). This usually appears on the first page of the article e.g.

Kacmar, K. M., Andrews, M. C., Harris, K. J., & Tepper, B. J. (2013). Ethical leadership and subordinate outcomes: The mediating role of organizational politics and the moderating role of political skill. Journal of Business Ethics, 115, 33–44.

Journal articles with no DOI

Provide the home page URL of the journal. If you are accessing the article from a database you may need to do a quick web search to locate this URL e.g.

Beaudoin, K. M., Knuth, R., & Benner, G. J. (2008). Social validation of services for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders: A comparative study. International Journal of Special Education, 23(1), 1–7. Retrieved from

Other examples