- Author (Last name, initials)
- Year of publication
- Title of article (capitalise only the first word of title and of subtitle and any proper nouns)
- Title of publication in italics
- Volume number in italics. Issue number only if each issue of the journal begins on page 1 (APA Style Blog)
- Page numbers of article
- DOI for print articles if given in the article
DOI for articles viewed online or, if there is no DOI assigned, the URL for the journal homepage
Print journal articles
According to Bourke and Loveridge (2014) ... OR
Research indicates ... (Bourke & Loveridge, 2014).
Bourke, R., & Loveridge, J. (2014). Exposing the divide between assessment and the point of learning through student voice. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 49, 149–161.
Electronic journal articles
Journal articles with DOI
Provide the article DOI (Digital Object Identifier). This usually appears on the first page of the article or search Crossref.org, e.g.
Kacmar, K. M., Andrews, M. C., Harris, K. J., & Tepper, B. J. (2013). Ethical leadership and subordinate outcomes: The mediating role of organizational politics and the moderating role of political skill. Journal of Business Ethics, 115, 33–44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1373-8
Journal articles with no DOI
Provide the homepage URL of the journal. If you are accessing the article from a database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate this URL, e.g.
Beaudoin, K. M., Knuth, R., & Benner, G. J. (2008). Social validation of services for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders: A comparative study. International Journal of Special Education, 23(1), 1–7. Retrieved from http://www.internationaljournalofspecialeducation.com/
- See Authors for more information about citing works with more than one author
- Citing a special issue (APA Style Blog)
- If an article has an article number instead of a page range (APA Style Blog)
- These APA style pages use the updated DOI format https://doi.org/xxxxx (DOI Display Guidelines Update [March 2017] APA Style Blog). The printed Manual formats DOIs as doi:xxxxx. Although either format is acceptable, use only one format within your paper